Key Findings of Enrolment Ratio at All India Level, 2021-22 (Based on UDISEPlus Data)


Here are the key findings from the analysis concerning the enrolment ratio at the all-India level, derived from the UDISEPlus 2021-22 data. Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER), Net Enrolment Ratio (NER), Adjusted Net Enrolment Ratio (Adjusted-NER), and Age-specific Enrolment Ratio (ASER) have been analyzed at primary, upper primary, secondary, and higher secondary levels of education, all of which suggest that India is still far away atttaining the status of universal school education.

Primary Level: The Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) at the primary level is 103.4 percent, indicating that more children are enrolled than the official school-age population, which includes over-aged and under-aged children. The Net Enrolment Ratio (NER), which considers the official age group for primary education (6-10 years), is 88.6 percent. Moreover, the Adjusted NER, which considers over-aged and under-aged students, is calculated at 99.1 percent. The high NER signifies significant efforts to ensure access to primary education for children in the 6-10 age group.

Table 18: Enrolment Ratio (Total Enrolment): All-India, 2021-22


Gross Enrolment Ratio Net Enrolment Ratio Adjusted NER

Age-specific Enrolment Ratio

Primary 103.4 88.6 99.1 99.1 (6-10 years)
Upper Primary 94.7 71.3 87.3 92.2 (11-13 years)
Elementary 100.1 90.5 96.5 96.5 (6-13 years)
Secondary 79.6 47.9 64.7 72.8 (14-15 years)
Higher Secondary 57.6 34.2  – 42.4 (16-17 years)

Source: UDISE+ 2021-22.

Upper Primary Level: The Gross Enrolment Ratio is 94.7 percent at the upper primary level, indicating a relatively high enrolment rate. However, the Net Enrolment Ratio drops to 71.3 percent due to students progressing to higher grades. The Adjusted NER, which considers the age range of 11-13 years, is 87.3 percent. This emphasizes the importance of ensuring continued access to education during these critical years.

Elementary Level: Combining primary and upper primary levels as the elementary level, the Gross Enrolment Ratio is 100.1 percent, signifying near-universal enrolment. The Net Enrolment Ratio is calculated at 90.5 percent, indicating that a significant proportion (almost 91 percent) of the official age group is enrolled. The Adjusted NER for the elementary level is 96.5 percent, reflecting the inclusion of this age group of students enrolled one level above the elementary level.

Secondary Level: The enrolment ratios decline from the elementary to the secondary level. The Gross Enrolment Ratio at the secondary level is 79.6 percent, indicating that 79.6 percent of the relevant age group is enrolled. The Net Enrolment Ratio drops to 47.9 percent, reflecting a significant decrease due to various factors such as dropout rates and limited access to secondary education. The Adjusted NER, calculated at 64.7 percent, highlights the need for efforts to improve enrolment and retention rates at this level.

Higher Secondary Level: The Gross Enrolment Ratio is 57.6 percent at the higher secondary level, indicating a lower participation rate than previous levels. The Net Enrolment Ratio is 34.2 percent, highlighting the challenges in ensuring access to higher secondary education. Unfortunately, an Adjusted NER is not available for this level, but efforts should be made to improve enrolment and bridge the gap to provide students with better educational opportunities.

Muslim Gross Enrolment Ratio at School Education in India (2021-22)

State-wise Muslim Gross Enrolment Ratio at School Education in India (2021-22)

Muslims Gross Enrolment Ratio at Higher Education Level (2020-21)

Overall, the analysis reveals that while primary and elementary levels show high enrolment rates, there is a need to focus on improving enrolment rates at the secondary and higher secondary levels. Efforts should be directed towards ensuring equitable access to education, as these challenges are crucial for promoting inclusive and quality education throughout the country. Policymakers and educators should continue to address the gaps and challenges to provide all children with equal opportunities for education and development.

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