Status of School Education in view of NER 2021-22
Amongst the different types of enrolment ratios available, Net Enrolment Ratio is considered the most logical, the latest available for 2021-22. This note has attempted to analyze the current level of NER, both the all-India and state-wide and know where do we stand regarding the goal of 100 percent GER by the year 2030 envisaged in the National Policy on Education (NEP 2020).
The NER is the percentage of children of an age group enrolled in schools at a corresponding level of education. The Net Enrolment Rate/Ratio (NER) for different levels of education in various States & Union Territories of India reveals the following:
The overall NER for elementary education (1 to 8) in India is 88.6 percent, which is relatively high. However, the NER for secondary education (9-10) and higher secondary education (11-12) is relatively low, with only 34.2 percent of boys and 35 percent of girls enrolled in secondary education and 47.9 percent of boys and 48 percent of girls enrolled in higher secondary education.
There is a significant difference in NER between boys and girls in some states, especially at higher levels of education. For example, in Bihar, the NER for girls in higher secondary education is 35.8 percent, much lower than that of boys at 33.5 percent. Similarly, in Andhra Pradesh, the NER for girls in upper primary education (6 to 8) is only 68.6 percent, compared to 72.5 percent for boys.
Some states, such as Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, and Delhi, have a relatively high NER at all levels of education for both boys and girls, indicating better access to education in these states.
On the other hand, states such as Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Jammu and Kashmir have a lower NER, particularly for girls. For example, in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the NER for girls in upper primary education is only 56.3 percent, compared to 68.6 percent for boys.
Net Enrolment Rate (NER) by Gender and Level of School Education, 2021-22
India/ State/ UT
|Net Enrolment Rate (NER)|
|Primary (1 to 5)||Upper Primary (6 to 8)||Elementary (1 to 8)||Secondary (9-10)||Higher Secondary (11-12)|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||59.8||63||61.4||54.8||56.3||55.5||63.5||66.1||64.8||43.5||49.3||46.2||37.5||44.5||40.8|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli and
Daman and Diu
|Jammu and Kashmir||85.7||86.5||86.2||42||45.1||43.4||75.2||78.1||76.6||30.6||31.4||31||30.3||30.1||30.2|
Source: UDISE+ 2021-22
Kerala has a high NER at all levels of education for boys, but the data is missing for girls at the primary level.
Overall, the data shows that while India has made significant progress in universal access, there are still significant disparities between states and genders. Policymakers must address these disparities and ensure that every child has equal access to education, regardless of gender or geographical location.
Looking at the net enrolment rate for secondary and higher secondary education, we can see that the numbers are relatively low for most states/UTs. Only a few states have crossed the 50 percent mark for secondary education, while only Delhi has a net enrolment rate of above 50 percent for higher secondary education. This indicates that there is still a long way to go in ensuring access to and completion of secondary and higher secondary education.
Furthermore, there is a noticeable gender gap in net enrolment rates for secondary and higher secondary education in many states/UTs. Girls tend to have lower net enrolment rates compared to boys in most states, indicating that there may be gender-based barriers to accessing education in these regions.
In conclusion, while there have been improvements in net enrolment rates in primary and upper primary education in India, there is still a lot to achieve in ensuring access to and completion of secondary and higher secondary education, especially for girls. It is important to know & address the factors contributing to the low net enrolment rates at these levels of education. India still has to do a lot to achieve the goal of universal school education in the real sense, which is not likely to be attained without improving the efficiency of the primary level of education. Because of this, in the next post, we shall analyze the present status of dropout, transition, and retention rates at the different levels of school education based on UDISEplus data for the year 2021-22.