Educational Surveys in India 2023
Education is a critical component of a nation’s development, and surveys have been conducted in India from time to time to assess the progress made in the education sector. These surveys are essential because they help policymakers and educators understand the challenges faced by the education system and design policies that can effectively address them. In this essay, we will discuss the educational surveys conducted in India from time to time-based on household samples.
National Sample Survey (NSS)
The National Sample Survey (NSS) is one of the most comprehensive and widely used sources of data on education in India. It is a household survey conducted by MoSPI: Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation of the Government of India and covers various aspects of education, including enrollment rates, dropout rates, literacy rates, and educational attainment.
One of the earliest educational surveys conducted in India was the All India Educational Survey (AIES) conducted in 1957-58. The survey aimed to provide data on the availability and distribution of educational facilities and to assess the impact of education on the economic and social development of the country. The survey covered over 18,000 primary, middle, and high schools and 2,000 colleges and universities across the country.
Another significant educational survey conducted in India was the District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) in the 1990s. The survey aimed to assess the progress made in primary education and identify the challenges faced by the system. The survey covered over 3,500 villages and 50,000 households across the country and provided valuable insights about the state of primary education in India.
In recent years, the NSS has conducted several educational surveys that have provided crucial data on the progress made in the education sector. The 71st round of the NSS conducted in 2014 provided data on the status of education in rural areas of the country, while the 75th round conducted in 2017-18 provided data on education status in urban areas.
The NSS surveys have provided valuable insights into the education system in India. For example, the surveys have highlighted the problem of high dropout rates, especially among girls, in the primary and secondary levels. They have also identified the lack of access to quality education as a significant challenge, particularly in rural areas.
Educational surveys conducted in India from time to time-based on household samples have been crucial in assessing the progress made in the education sector and identifying the challenges faced by the system. These surveys have provided valuable data that has helped policymakers and educators design policies and programs that can effectively address the challenges faced by the education system. It is essential to continue conducting these surveys regularly to ensure that the education system in India continues to improve and meets the needs of the country’s population.
National Family Health Survey
The International Institute for Population Sciences is a premier institute researching population and health-related issues in India. The institute conducts various demographic surveys from time to time to provide data and insights into the population dynamics of India.
The National Family Health Survey is one of the most comprehensive and widely used demographic surveys conducted by IIPS. The survey aims to provide data on various aspects of health, population, and nutrition. The survey is conducted every five years, and the latest round of the survey, NFHS-5, was conducted in 2019-20. The survey covered over 6,00,000 households nationwide and provided valuable data on various health and population-related indicators, such as fertility, mortality, maternal and child health, and nutrition.
The District Level Household & Facility Survey is another demographic survey conducted by IIPS. The survey provides data on various health and population-related indicators at the district level. The survey covers various topics, including family planning, maternal and child health, immunization, and nutrition. The latest survey round, DLHS-4, was conducted in 2012-13.
Besides these surveys, IIPS also conducts other demographic surveys, such as the Sample Registration System (SRS), which provides data on vital events such as births, deaths, and infant mortality. The institute also conducts surveys on migration, urbanization, and aging.
The demographic surveys conducted by IIPS are essential because they provide valuable data and insights into the population dynamics of India. The data generated by these surveys is used by policymakers, researchers, and healthcare professionals to design policies and programs that can address the health and population-related challenges faced by the country. It is essential to conduct these surveys regularly to ensure the data remains up-to-date and relevant to the country’s needs.
In addition, the Registrar General of India, through Census operations, also collects information on a few educational variables. In summary, while all three organizations collect data related to education in India, the Census provides a broad overview, NSSO provides more detailed information through large-scale sample surveys, and NFHS focuses on education within the context of family and health. Here are the key differences between the three:
- Census: The Census of India is conducted every ten years, and it provides a comprehensive picture of the country’s population, including information on literacy rates, educational attainment, and other related statistics. The previous Census was conducted in 2011, and the next one is scheduled for 2021. The Census data on education provides a broad overview of the population’s education level and helps identify regional disparities in educational attainment.
- NSSO: The National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) conducts large-scale sample surveys on various topics, including education. The NSSO surveys are conducted at regular intervals, and the data collected helps understand the trends and patterns in education, such as enrollment rates, dropout rates, and gender disparities in education. The NSSO surveys provide more detailed information on education than the Census, as they collect data from a smaller but more representative sample.
- NFHS is a large-scale household survey conducted across India to collect information on various aspects of family and health, including education. The NFHS data on education provides information on literacy rates, school attendance, and other related statistics, focusing on women’s education and empowerment. The NFHS surveys are conducted periodically; the latest survey was conducted in 2019-20.