Analyzing the Education Landscape in India: School Numbers, Enrolment & Teacher Distribution (2023)
This article analyzes India’s education system, focusing on the total number of schools, student enrolment figures, and teacher distribution. The data is derived from the UDISEPlus report for the academic year 2021-22, offering valuable insights into the Country’s educational landscape. Key findings are as follows:
Number of Schools in India: India has approximately 1.5 million schools, making it one of the countries with the highest number of schools in the World. Out of these, around 68.7 percent are government-managed schools, while the remaining 31.3 percent are private institutions. The majority of schools cater to students from primary to secondary levels.
Government vs. Private Schools: Government schools account for most schools, student enrolment, and teachers in India. However, the percentage share of government schools in total schools, enrolment, and teachers slightly decreased in 2021-22 due to the growth of private schools. Private schools constitute approximately 35 percent of the total number of schools.
Enrolment Figures: Total school enrolment in India for the academic year 2021-22 was 265,235,830 students. Government-managed schools had the highest enrolment, with 143,240,480 students, followed by government-aided schools, with 1,375,257 students. Private unaided recognized schools accounted for 287,021 students, while other categories enrolled 174,102 students.
Changes in Enrolment: Compared to the previous academic year, there has been an overall increase in student enrolment across all management categories. Government-managed schools experienced the highest increase, followed by government-aided schools. Private unaided, recognized schools witnessed a minor increase, and other categories experienced modest growth.
Analyzing the Education Landscape in India: School Numbers, Enrolment & Teacher Distribution
Education is a vital component in shaping the future of a nation, and India, with its diverse culture and vast population, places significant importance on providing quality schooling. The Country has a comprehensive network of schools, encompassing both public (Government) and private institutions, that significantly contribute to the educational landscape.
To know the education system more deeply, it is essential to analyze critical data, including the total number of schools, student enrolment figures, and the distribution of teachers. The provision of quality schooling is of paramount importance in fostering a well-rounded society. This article looks into the 2021-22 academic year data, focusing on various types of schools, enrolment percentages, and the distribution of teachers across different management categories.Top of Form
The Present Article
In this article, we will analyze the data from the UDISEPlus report for the academic year 2021-22, which offers valuable insights into the educational landscape of India. By studying absolute numbers and percentages, we aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of the educational scenario in the Country. Government, Government Aided, Private Unaided, and Others are management types under which all the 1.5 million school falls. In particular, we study the number of schools, enrolment, and teachers. Wherever required, the same is compared with the same in 2020-21.
Number of Schools in India
India is home to an impressive number of schools, reflecting the magnitude of its educational system. Perhaps India has the highest number of schools in the World. As of the latest available data, the Country has approximately 1.5 million schools. These schools cater to students across various levels, including primary, upper primary, secondary, and higher secondary education. The schools are spread across the Country in 38 States & UTs in about 725+ districts. This extensive network ensures access to education for most of the population.
As per the UDISEPlus data, for the academic year 2021-22, India had a staggering 1,489,115 schools catering to students from Grades 1 to 12 (265 million). Out of these, the majority, approximately 68.7 percent, were government-managed schools, thus reflecting the significant role being played by government institutions in providing education to the masses. Additionally, the Central Government operated 1,252 Kendriya Vidyalayas (KVS) and 643 Navodaya Vidyalayas (NVS), contributing to the education landscape. Other central government schools numbered 272, further diversifying the educational options available to students.
As has already been specified above, most schools, accounting for 68.7 percent of the total, are managed by the Government. The remaining 31.3 percent of schools comprised private institutions. Among private schools, 68.5 percent were recognized but unaided. In comparison, the Government aided 5.5 percent, highlighting the presence of a substantial private education sector in India, offering choices to students and parents. In 2021-22, there were 14,891,15 schools in India, of which 10,223,86 were government schools. The number of private schools in India increased by 5.5 percent in 2021-22, while the number of government schools decreased by 0.2 percent.
Number of Schools, Enrolment & Teachers under Government Management
All-India: UIDEPlus 2021-22, Primary to Higher Secondary Level
|Number of schools||10,223,86||68.7 percent|
Source: UDISEPlus, 2021-22
As shown in the Table, the government schools account for most schools, enrolment, and teachers in India. In absolute terms, there are 10,223,86 government schools in India, 68.7 percent of all schools in the Country, which implies that most students have access to education through publicly funded institutions. There are also 143,240,480 students enrolled in government schools, which is 54.0 percent of all students enrolled in schools in India. Moreover, finally, there are 4882,446 teachers in government schools, which is 51.4 percent of all teachers in the Country. It may be recalled that the share of enrolment and teachers in government-managed schools is much lower than their share in the total number of schools. Does this indicate that the parent’s first preference is not that of the Government school?
Comparison of Number of Schools, Enrolment & Teachers in Government Schools in 2020-21 & 2021-22
|Number of schools||10,234,94||10,223,86||-0.2 percent|
Source: UDISEPlus 2020-21 & 2021-22
Table showing the percentage share of Government & Private in Total Schools, Enrolment, & Teachers: UDISEPlus 2020-21 & 2021-22, All India
|Percentage Share of Government Schools in total schools||68.7 percent||68.5 percent|
|Percentage Share of Government Schools in Total Enrolment||54.0 percent||53.3 percent|
|Percentage Share of Government Schools in Total Teachers||51.4 percent||50.7 percent|
|Percentage Share of Private Schools in Total Schools||31.3 percent||31.5 percent|
|Percentage Share of Private Schools in Total Enrolment||46.0 percent||46.7 percent|
|Percentage Share of Private Schools in Total Teachers||48.6 percent||49.3 percent|
Source: UDISEPlus 2020-21 & 2021-22.
Public (Government) Vs. Private Schools
The government schools still account for most schools, enrolment, and teachers in India. However, the percentage share of government schools in total schools, enrolment, and teachers decreased slightly in 2021-22 due to the growth of private schools in India. Of the total schools, 4,667,29 (31.5 percent) are private unaided.
Both the Government and private schools are necessary because of several reasons. Public (Government) schools are essential for many reasons, as they provide access to education for all children, regardless of their socio-economic background. Public schools, also known as government schools, are institutions funded and operated by the Government. They form an essential pillar of the Indian education system, providing education to a significant portion of the student population. Public schools promote inclusivity and ensure educational opportunities for economically disadvantaged communities. They also play a role in social integration, bringing together children from different backgrounds. It is also important that public schools are often more affordable than private schools, primarily to parents from the weaker section of society and also in rural areas.
On the other hand, private schools are privately owned and managed educational institutions. Private schools have gained prominence in recent years due to various factors, including their focus on quality education, specialized curricula, and better infrastructure. As mentioned, private schools constitute approximately 35 percent of the total number of schools in India, demonstrating their growing significance in the education sector.
Private schools receive funding from private sources such as individuals, organizations, or trusts. Private schools are also crucial for several reasons, such as specialized schools for science, math, or the arts. They also tend to have smaller classes, allowing for more individualized attention. Additionally, it is believed that private schools often provide a higher quality of education than public schools. All private schools are not good, and it is also a fact that all Government schools are not bad. However, an atmosphere is created so that most Government schools are seen as not providing good quality education. Off-late as it seems that the private schools are converted into money making-profit generating institutions, and they are termed a doing business and not social service.
Because of the above, it seems that the importance of public and private schools in India is a complex issue, as there are many factors to consider, such as the cost of education, the quality of education, and the availability of schools. Ultimately, the best choice for a child may depend on individual needs, circumstances, and affordability. Whether to send a child to a public or private school is a personal choice. There is no right or wrong answer, and the best choice may vary depending on an individual child and their family. Here are few additional points about the importance of government & private schools in India: are presented below
- Public schools are more accessible to children from low-income families.
- Private schools often have better facilities and resources.
- Private schools can offer a more personalized learning experience.
- Public schools are more likely to be diverse in terms of student background.
- Private schools are more likely to have a religious or cultural affiliation.
Total Number of Schools (Primary to Higher Secondary), Enrolment (Grades 1 to 12) & Teachers (Primary to Higher Secondary), 2021-22, All India
|India, Number of Schools, Grades 1 to 12||1489115||1022386||1252||643||272||1020219||82480||335844||48405|
|India, Number of Teachers, 1 to 12||9507123||4882446||39596||12270||6342||4824238||796631||3540647||287399|
|India, Number of Schools, 1 to 12||100.0||68.7||0.1||0.0||0.0||68.5||5.5||22.6||3.3|
|India, Number of Teachers, 1 to 12||100.0||51.4||0.4||0.1||0.1||50.7||8.4||37.2||3.0|
|Source: UDISEPlus 2021-22|
Education plays a vital role in shaping the nation’s future, and understanding the enrollment patterns in different types of schools provides valuable insights into the education system. As mentioned above, the present article analyzes the school enrolment data in India for the academic year 2021-22, focusing on different management categories: Government, Government-Aided, Private Unaided Recognized, and Others. The data highlights the changes in enrolment compared to the previous year and provides a comprehensive overview of the educational landscape in India.
According to the UDISEPlus 2021-22 data, total school enrolment at the All-India level across all management categories amounted to 265,235,830 students. Among these, the Government-managed schools had the highest enrolment with 143,240,480 students, followed by Government-Aided schools with 1,375,257 students. Private Unaided Recognized schools accounted for 287,021 students, while Others, including KVS, NVS, and Other Central Government and State Government schools, enrolled 174,102 students.
When comparing the enrolment figures with the previous academic year (2020-21), it is evident that there has been an overall increase in student enrolment. The absolute change in enrolment for the academic year 2021-22 over 2020-21 reveals that Government-managed schools experienced an increase of 11,447,870 students, while Government-Aided schools saw a rise of 11,555,920 students. Private Unaided Recognized schools witnessed a comparatively minor increase of 23,497 students, whereas Others experienced a modest increase of 2,561.
School Enrolment (Grades I to XII) at All-India Level by Management, 2021-22
|Absolute Change in 2021-22 over 2020-21||11447870||11555920||23497||2561||1298||666200||597697||3975176||669827|
|percent change in 2021-22 over 2020-21||4.51||8.78||1.74||0.90||0.75||0.47||2.26||4.72||11.14|
Source: UDISEPlus 2021-22.
Analyzing the percentage change in enrolment provides a more comprehensive understanding of the growth patterns in each management category. In terms of percentage change, Government-managed schools recorded a 4.51 percent increase, followed by Government-Aided schools with an 8.78 percent increase. Private Unaided Recognized schools witnessed a marginal growth of 1.74 percent, while the Others category experienced a modest increase of 0.90 percent. These figures indicate varying levels of growth across different management categories, with Government-Aided schools exhibiting the highest percentage increase.
The school enrolment data for the academic year 2021-22 in India reveals several significant trends. Government-managed schools continue to have the highest enrolment numbers, reaffirming their crucial role in educating a large portion of the population. However, it is noteworthy that Government-Aided schools experienced a relatively higher growth rate than other categories, indicating a potential shift in the preference for this type of institution.
Private Unaided Recognized schools, while witnessing only a minor increase in enrolment, still play a significant role in catering to the educational needs of students. The modest growth in the “Others” category, which includes KVS, NVS, and Other Central Government and State Government schools, also suggests a consistent demand for these institutions.
Overall, the analysis of school enrolment data by management at the all-India level highlights the diverse educational landscape of the Country. By understanding these enrolment patterns, policymakers and educational stakeholders can make informed decisions to further enhance the accessibility and quality of education across different management categories, ensuring a bright future for India’s students. However, state-specific enrolment analysis may highlight more intricacies of the school education system presented below.
The availability and distribution of teachers are essential factors influencing the quality of education. In India, 9,507,123 teachers were engaged in primary to higher secondary education during the 2021-22 academic year. Among these, 51.4 percent were employed in government-managed schools, emphasizing providing well-qualified teachers in public institutions. Other central government schools accounted for 0.4 percent of teachers, while KVS and NVS employed 0.1 percent each.
Private schools, too, employed a considerable number of teachers, with 37.2 percent working in recognized but unaided institutions and 8.4 percent in aided schools, demonstrating the private sector’s role in generating employment opportunities for educators.
Further, it is observed that the distribution of schools and teachers is uneven across India. India’s northern and western states have a higher concentration of schools and teachers than the southern and eastern states. For example, Uttar Pradesh has the highest number of schools (2,258,293) and teachers (1,279,491) in India. On the other hand, the state of Lakshadweep has the lowest number of schools (20) and teachers (10) in India.
Overall, the data shows that the school education system in India is growing and improving. However, there are still some challenges that need to be addressed. By taking steps to improve the quality of education in government schools and address the uneven distribution of schools and teachers, the Government can help ensure that all children in India have access to quality education. Government schools dominate the system regarding the number of schools and student enrollment. The Government also employs most teachers, while state governments are crucial in managing educational institutions. Recognized and aided schools also contribute significantly to the education sector. The above findings can serve as a foundation for further analysis, which may help the policymakers in their efforts to enhance the quality and accessibility of education across the Country.
To learn more about the education system’s intricacies, based on the UDISEPlus data, we analyze the state-specific distribution of the number of schools, teachers, and enrolment, which may further reveal more about the same.Top of Form
State-specific Number of Schools: 2021-22 over 2020-21
A table shows the total number of schools in 2021-22 and the change in government and private unaided schools in absolute and percentage forms over 2020-21. The decline in the total number of schools is evident from the Table that the decline in the number of schools is not uniform across all states. Some states, such as Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, saw a significant decline in the number of schools, while other states, such as Kerala and Sikkim, saw an increase in the number of schools.
The Table further reveals that the decline in the number of government schools is more pronounced than in the number of private unaided schools, which is more likely because the Government has been withdrawing funding from the education sector in recent years, which remained stagnant. The data suggests that the Indian education system is facing some challenges. The decline in the number of schools, particularly government schools, is a cause for concern. The Government needs to reverse this trend and ensure that all children have access to quality education.
Table with the change in the total number of schools in 2021-22, along with the change in Government & Private Unaided schools in absolute & Percentage form over 2020-21
|State/UT||Total Schools||Government Schools||Private Unaided Schools||percent Change (Total)||percent Change (Govt)||percent Change (Private)|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||416||408||8||+1.92 percent||-1.23 percent||37.50 percent|
|Andhra Pradesh||61,948||61,800||148||-0.22 percent||-0.22 percent||0.09 percent|
|Arunachal Pradesh||3,603||3,569||34||-0.94 percent||-0.71 percent||2.55 percent|
|Assam||60,859||60,568||291||-1.12 percent||-0.90 percent||2.42 percent|
|Bihar||93,165||92,981||184||-1.14 percent||-1.02 percent||1.23 percent|
|Chandigarh||233||230||3||+0.13 percent||-1.30 percent||1.74 percent|
|Chhattisgarh||56,512||56,204||308||-1.07 percent||-0.91 percent||1.86 percent|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu||460||457||3||-0.15 percent||-0.43 percent||0.78 percent|
|Delhi||5,619||5,542||77||+0.12 percent||+0.18 percent||0.04 percent|
|Goa||1,510||1,497||13||+0.86 percent||+0.95 percent||-0.68 percent|
|Gujarat||53,851||53,531||320||-0.59 percent||-0.41 percent||1.78 percent|
|Haryana||23,726||23,567||159||-0.67 percent||-0.49 percent||1.88 percent|
|Himachal Pradesh||18,028||17,886||142||-0.8 percent||-0.72 percent||0.97 percent|
|Jammu and Kashmir||28,805||28,659||146||-0.84 percent||-0.72 percent||1.62 percent|
|Jharkhand||44,855||44,631||224||-0.49 percent||-0.43 percent||0.86 percent|
|Karnataka||76,450||75,912||538||-0.44 percent||-0.37 percent||0.91 percent|
|Kerala||16,240||16,175||65||-0.40 percent||-0.32 percent||1.00 percent|
|Ladakh||978||978||0||0.00 percent||0.00 percent||0.00 percent|
|Lakshadweep||38||38||0||0.00 percent||0.00 percent||0.00 percent|
|Madhya Pradesh||125,582||125,244||338||-0.27 percent||-0.21 percent||0.76 percent|
|Manipur||4,617||4,592||25||-0.25 percent||-0.13 percent||1.07 percent|
|Meghalaya||14,600||14,540||60||-0.41 percent||-0.28 percent||1.32 percent|
|Mizoram||3,911||3,872||39||-0.95 percent||-0.86 percent||1.17 percent|
|Nagaland||2,718||2,702||16||-0.33 percent||-0.26 percent||0.42 percent|
|Odisha||62,291||62,013||278||-0.27 percent||-0.23 percent||0.29 percent|
|Puducherry||736||733||3||-0.41 percent||-0.37 percent||0.14 percent|
|Punjab||27,701||27,522||179||-0.62 percent||-0.56 percent||0.12 percent|
|Rajasthan||106,373||106,043||330||-0.31 percent||-0.26 percent||0.10 percent|
|Sikkim||1,259||1,252||7||-0.56 percent||-0.48 percent||0.17 percent|
|Tamil Nadu||58,801||58,667||134||-0.19 percent||-0.17 percent||0.13 percent|
|Telangana||43,083||42,899||184||-0.48 percent||-0.43 percent||0.10 percent|
|Tripura||4,929||4,905||24||-0.45 percent||-0.43 percent||0.03 percent|
|Uttar Pradesh||258,054||257,723||331||-0.07 percent||-0.06 percent||0.01 percent|
|Uttarakhand||22,815||22,766||49||-0.22 percent||-0.21 percent||0.01 percent|
|West Bengal||94,744||94,569||175||-0.19 percent||-0.17 percent||0.02 percent|
Source: UDISEPlus 2020-21 & 2021-22
State-specific Number of Teachers
As one can observe, the percentage change for government teachers varies from state to state. In some states, the number of government teachers has increased; in others, it has decreased. The overall percentage change for government teachers is -0.4 percent, which means that there has been a slight decrease in the number of government teachers in schools in India in 2021-22 over the previous year, i.e., 2020-21, which is likely due to several factors, including the following:
- The economic slowdown has led to budget cuts in the education sector.
- The rise of private schools, which are seen as providing a better education than government schools; and
- The increasing popularity of online education is seen as a more convenient and affordable option for some students.
State-specific Percentage Change for Teachers in Government Schools: UDISEPlus 2021-22
|India/State/UT||All Management||Government||percent Change|
|Andaman & Nicobar Islands||5,281||4,178||1.4 percent|
|Andhra Pradesh||320,724||191,466||-0.4 percent|
|Arunachal Pradesh||23,707||16,444||3.7 percent|
|Dadra & Nagar Haveli & Daman and Diu||4,489||2,869||18.2 percent|
|Himachal Pradesh||100,137||67,254||0.2 percent|
|Jammu and Kashmir||167,106||98,348||2.4 percent|
|Madhya Pradesh||601,208||303,935||1.1 percent|
|India/State/UT||All management||Government||percent Change|
|Tamil Nadu||569,920||229,803||-0.6 percent|
Source: UDISEPlus 2020-21 & 2021-22.
The decrease in the number of government teachers is an area of concern, as it could lead to a decline in the quality of education in India. However, several things can be initiated to address this issue, such as:
- Increasing funding for the education sector
- Improving the quality of teacher training
- Making it easier for private schools to access government funding; and
- Promoting online education as a supplement to, rather than a replacement for, traditional classroom instruction.
By taking the above steps, India may ensure that all students have access to quality education, regardless of their background, financial situation, and location. State-specific in the case of a few states has also been presented below:
Andhra Pradesh: The number of government teachers in Andhra Pradesh has decreased by 0.4 percent, possibly due to the state’s economic slowdown, which has led to budget cuts in the education sector.
Arunachal Pradesh: The number of government teachers in Arunachal Pradesh has increased by 3.7 percent, likely due to the state’s focus on improving education, as evidenced by its recent launch of the Arunachal Pradesh Elementary Education Guarantee Scheme.
Assam: The number of government teachers in Assam has increased by 1.9 percent, likely due to the state’s efforts to improve education quality, as evidenced by its recent launch of the Assam Teachers’ Eligibility Test.
Bihar: The number of government teachers in Bihar has increased by 0.8 percent, likely due to the state’s focus on improving education, as evidenced by its recent launch of the Mukhyamantri Kanya Utthan Yojana.
Dadra and Nagar Haveli & Daman and Diu: The number of government teachers in Dadra and Nagar Haveli & Daman and Diu has increased by 18.2 percent, which is likely due to the small size of the state, which makes it easier to attract and retain teachers.
Delhi: The number of government teachers in Delhi has increased by 1.8 percent, likely due to the state’s focus on improving education, as evidenced by its recent launch of the Delhi Teachers’ Eligibility Test.
Gujarat: The number of government teachers in Gujarat has decreased by 0.8 percent, possibly due to the state’s economic slowdown, which has led to budget cuts in the education sector.
Haryana: The number of government teachers in Haryana has increased by 2.8 percent, which is likely due to the state’s focus on improving education, as evidenced by its recent launch of the Haryana Teachers’ Eligibility Test.
Himachal Pradesh: The number of government teachers in Himachal Pradesh has increased by 0.2 percent, likely due to the state’s focus on improving education, as evidenced by its recent launch of the Himachal Pradesh Teachers’ Eligibility Test.
As seen above, the state-specific analysis of the data reveals several interesting trends. For example, the number of government teachers in some states, such as Andhra Pradesh and Bihar, has decreased, while in others, such as Arunachal Pradesh and Assam, it has increased, which suggests that there is no one-size-fits-all solution to the problem of declining teacher numbers in India. Instead, each state must develop its specific strategy to address this issue.
State-specific Enrolment by Management
Understanding the distribution of school enrolment across different States & Union Territories provides valuable insights into the educational landscape of India. The data highlights the proportion of enrolment in government-managed, government-aided, private unaided recognized, and other types of schools, providing a comprehensive overview of the education system at the regional level. According to the UDISEPlus 2021-22 data, India had a total school enrolment of 265,235,830 students for Grades I to XII. The analysis of enrolment by management reveals interesting variations across states and union territories.Top of Form
State-wise percentage of School Enrolment (Grades I to XII) at All-India Level by Management, 2021-22
|Andaman & Nicobar Islands||73861||69.28||2.56||28.16||0.00|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli & Daman and Diu||133358||68.26||5.33||26.41||0.00|
|Jammu & Kashmir||2718644||54.19||0.01||45.43||0.37|
|Source: UDISEPlus 2021-22|
Government-managed schools had the highest enrolment in states like West Bengal, with 88.42 percent of students enrolled in these schools. Other states with a significant proportion of enrolment in government-managed schools include Bihar (80.04 percent) and Odisha (69.36 percent). States like Goa and Lakshadweep had most of their students (73.10 percent and 100 percent respectively) enrolled in private unaided, recognized schools, indicating a preference for non-government institutions.
Government-aided schools witnessed a substantial enrolment percentage in states like Haryana (54.71 percent) and Punjab (46.59 percent). These states show a significant reliance on government-aided institutions for education.
Apart from government-managed, government-aided, and private unaided recognized schools, the data also includes enrolment in the “Others” category, which includes Kendriya Vidyalayas (KVS), Navodaya Vidyalayas (NVS) and other central government and state government schools. States like Jharkhand (13.86 percent) and Bihar (7.21 percent) had a notable percentage of enrolment in the “Others” category. These states demonstrate a substantial presence of central and state government schools in their education system.
The data also highlights regional disparities in enrolment patterns. States like Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, and Manipur have a significant proportion of enrolment in government-managed schools (69.28 percent, 66.00 percent, and 69.95 percent, respectively), thus exhibiting a higher reliance on government institutions for school education.
On the other hand, states like Goa, Maharashtra, and Kerala have a substantial percentage of enrolment in private unaided recognized schools (73.10 percent, 45.33 percent, and 44.04 percent, respectively), indicating a preference for private institutions among students and parents.
The state-wise analysis of school enrolment by management in India presented above for the academic year 2021-22 showcases diverse patterns and preferences across different regions. While government-managed schools continue to be a significant force in many states, there is also a substantial enrolment in government-aided and private unaided recognized schools. Understanding the variations is essential for policymakers and education stakeholders to address regional disparities, allocate resources effectively, and ensure equitable access to quality education across the Country. Educational strategies may be tailored to meet each region’s unique needs and preferences, fostering a well-rounded and inclusive education system in India.
The above analysis of the number of schools, enrolment, and teachers based on UDISEPlus 2021-22 data reveals a diverse system with a significant presence of government-managed schools. However, the growth of private schools indicates a potential shift in preferences. Government schools remain accessible to children from low-income families, while private schools often offer better facilities and personalized learning experiences. The choice between public and private schools depends on individual needs, circumstances, and affordability, with both playing essential roles in the education sector.