EDUCATION: Building India’s Future at 100


Education is the bedrock of a nation’s progress, and India, as the world’s second-most populous country (about 1,426 million population), recognizes the critical role of education in shaping its future at 100. As India approaches its 100th year of independence, there is a growing sense of urgency to reform the country’s education system. The education system in India is failing a bit in meeting the needs of a rapidly changing World, and it is holding back India’s economic and social progress. To ensure a prosperous, sustainable, and inclusive society, it is imperative to invest in a robust education system that provides quality education to all.

This article discuss the significance of education in building India’s future and highlights key areas that demand attention for a transformative educational landscape. There are a number of challenges that need to be addressed in order to build a World-class education system in India. These may include the following:

Equal Access to Education

Creating equal access to education is the cornerstone of building India’s future. While significant strides have been made in improving enrollment rates, there are still challenges in ensuring quality education for all. Efforts should focus on reducing gender disparities, bridging the urban-rural divide, and catering to marginalized communities. Initiatives like the Right to Education Act 2009 have granted children aged 6 to 14 the fundamental right to education, but it is essential to strengthen implementation and monitor outcomes to ensure that no child is left behind.

Even though the UDISEPlus 2021-22 Adjusted Enrolment Ratio reveals that most of the children of the age group 6 to 11 years are currently enrolled, the same is not valid for other clientele age groups, which raises doubt about India’s efforts towards attaining a GER of 50 percent at the Higher Education level by 2035?

Enrolment Ratio: All-India, 2020-21 & 2021-22

Level GER NER Adjusted NER ASER*
2020-21 2021-22 2020-21 2021-22 2020-21 2021-22 2020-21 2021-22
Primary  103.3 103.4  92.7 88.6  98.6 99.1  98.6 99.1 (6-10 years)
Upper Primary  92.2 94.7  74.1 71.3  84.4 87.3  91.6 92.2 (11-13 years)
Elementary  99.1 100.1  92.1 90.5  96.0 96.5  96.0 96.5 (6-13 years)
Secondary  79.8 79.6  52.5 47.9  61.8 64.7  73.4 72.8 (14-15 years)
Higher Secondary  53.8 57.6  34.7 34.2  –  –  46.3 42.4 (16-17 years)
Source: UDISE+ 2020-21 & 2021-22 *ASER: Age-specific enrolment ratio.

Enhancing the Quality of Education

In addition to access, the quality of education is of paramount importance which is reflected both in the ASER (Pratham) and NCERT’s NAS 2022. Education in India needs to move away from rote learning and standardized exams towards a more holistic, practical approach. Nurturing critical thinking, problem-solving skills, creativity, and innovation should be integrated into the curriculum. Teachers should be adequately trained to adopt learner-centric methodologies, leveraging technology and interactive teaching tools. A strong emphasis on vocational training & skill development is essential to equip students with the competencies required for the evolving job market.

NEP 2020 has recommended restructuring of the school education sector as per the following details:

  1. Foundational stage of school level of education (3 years of Pre-primary education including Grades 1 and 2 with corresponding age groups 3+ to 7+ years)
  2. The Preparatory phase consists of 3 years, i.e., Grades 3, 4 and 5
  3. Middle school education of 3 years (Grades 6, 7, and 8); and
  4. Secondary education phase of 4 years consists of Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12.

The clientele age groups of these phases would be Phase I (3+ to 7+ years), Phase II (8+ to 10+ years), Phase III (11+ to 13+ years), and Phase IV (14+ to 17+ years).

Revamping Infrastructure and Resources

To create an enabling learning environment, India must invest in revamping educational infrastructure and providing adequate resources. Expenditure on Social Services as a percentage of GDP  reveals that India is still far away from an expenditure of 6 percent of GDP on the Education Sector. In fact, the entire social sector has 8.3 percent expenditure of GDP in 2022-23 (Budgeted), to which the share of education is 2,9 percent, and that of the Health Sector, 2.1 percent.

Many schools, particularly in rural areas, lack basic amenities like electricity, clean water, and proper sanitation facilities. Upgrading physical infrastructure, including classrooms, libraries, and laboratories, will foster a better learning environment. Furthermore, leveraging digital technologies and providing internet connectivity can enhance access to knowledge and bridge the digital divide, ensuring that students across the country have equal opportunities for learning.

Computer, Internet Facilities Facility

All Schools

Facility 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22
Electricity 80.2 83.9 86.6
Internet 22.3 24.5 33.9
Computer 39.0 41.3 44.9

Source: UDISEPlus, different years.

Empowering Teachers

Teachers are the backbone of education, and empowering them is crucial for the success of any educational reform. Continuous training programs, workshops, and mentoring initiatives should be provided to help teachers adapt to modern teaching methodologies, technology integration, and student-centered learning. Attracting and retaining skilled and motivated teachers should be a priority, which can be achieved through competitive salaries, recognition, and career advancement opportunities. By investing in teachers, India may create a strong foundation for quality education.

Public-Private Partnerships

Collaboration between the government and the private sector may play a significant role in strengthening the education system in India. Public-private partnerships can bring in expertise, resources, and innovative approaches to address the challenges faced by the education sector. Corporations can contribute through corporate social responsibility initiatives, sponsoring scholarships, providing infrastructure support, and collaborating on research and development projects. Such partnerships can enhance the quality of education and create a sustainable model for long-term development. It may be observed that India is slowly but surely moving towards privatization os school education which is indicated in the growing number of such institutions which is reflected in the following table:






Government Government








Total Enroment: Grades 1 to 12 Total KVS NVS Other Central




2021-22 26,52,35,830 143240480 1375257 287021 174102 141404100 27039457 88271316 6684577
2020-21 25,37,87,960 131684560 1351760 284460 172804 140737900 26441760 84296140 6014750
Absolute Change in 2021-22 over 2020-21 11447870 11555920 23497 2561 1298 666200 597697 3975176 669827
% change in 2021-22 over 2020-21 4.51 8.78 1.74 0.90 0.75 0.47 2.26 4.72 11.14

Source: UDISEPlus 2021-22

Promoting Lifelong Learning & Research

Building India’s future at 100 requires a focus on lifelong learning and research. Encouraging a culture of continuous learning beyond formal education is essential to adapt to the rapid pace of change. Providing opportunities for adult education, vocational training, and upskilling programs will enable individuals to remain competitive and contribute effectively to the workforce. Moreover, fostering a research-oriented environment in educational institutions will drive innovation, scientific discoveries, and technological advancements that can propel India forward in various fields.

Meeting the Challenges

In order to build a world-class education system in India, these challenges need to be addressed, which require a significant investment on education, as well as a major overhaul of the curriculum and the way that teachers are trained. However, the benefits of investing in education are clear. A well-educated population is essential for economic growth, social mobility, and national security. By investing in education, India can build a brighter future for itself and its citizens. Here are a few  specific reforms that could be implemented to improve the education system in India:

  • Universalization of education:The government should make it a priority to provide universal access to education for all children, regardless of their social background. This would require expanding the number of schools and increasing the availability of scholarships.
  • Disparities in Access: Despite progress, there are still disparities in access to education across different regions, socio-economic groups, and gender. Children in rural areas and marginalized communities often face obstacles such as lack of schools, inadequate infrastructure, and financial constraints, which hinder their access to quality education.
  • Quality Disparities: While access has improved, ensuring consistent quality across educational institutions remains a challenge. Variations in teaching standards, curriculum implementation, and assessment methods need to be addressed to provide a uniform and high-quality education experience for all students.
  • Teacher Shortage: India faces a shortage of qualified and motivated teachers, particularly in remote and disadvantaged areas. Additionally, there is a need to enhance the quality of teacher training programs and provide ongoing professional development opportunities to ensure that educators are equipped with the necessary skills and knowledge to deliver effective education.
  • Outdated Curriculum: The curriculum in many educational institutions often focuses heavily on theoretical knowledge and rote learning, leaving little room for practical application, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills. There is a need to revamp the curriculum to make it more relevant & engaging.
  • Infrastructure and Resources: Inadequate infrastructure, including classrooms, libraries, laboratories, and technology resources, is a persistent challenge in many schools, especially in rural areas. Insufficient funding and lack of maintenance hamper the provision of a conducive learning environment.
  • Socio-economic Barriers: Socio-economic factors such as poverty, child labor, and social inequalities pose significant barriers to education. Many children are forced to work to support their families, limiting their access to education. Addressing these socio-economic challenges and providing support systems to mitigate their impact is crucial.
  • Educational Equity: Achieving educational equity requires special attention to ensure that historically marginalized groups, including girls, children with disabilities, and ethnic minorities, have equal opportunities and access to education. Policies and interventions should focus on removing barriers and promoting inclusivity.
  • Technology Divide: While digital technologies have the potential to enhance education, there is a significant digital divide in India, with many students lacking access to computers, the internet, or digital devices. Bridging the technology gap and ensuring equitable access to digital resources is essential for inclusive education.
  • Education & Employability Disconnect: The gap between education and employability needs to be addressed to ensure that graduates possess the skills and competencies required by the job market. Greater emphasis on vocational training, skill development, and industry-academia collaborations can bridge this gap.
  • Monitoring & Evaluation: Strong monitoring & evaluation mechanisms are essential to track progress, identify gaps, and ensure accountability in the education system. Strengthening data collection, analysis, and monitoring frameworks will enable evidence-based decision-making and policy interventions.
  • Curriculum reform: The curriculum in schools in India need updatation to reflect the needs of the 21st century workforce. This includes incorporating more STEM subjects, as well as teaching students about critical thinking, problem-solving, and creativity.
  • Teacher training: The government should invest in teacher training programs to ensure that teachers are equipped to teach the new curriculum. This includes providing teachers with training in STEM subjects, as well as in critical thinking and problem-solving.

By implementing these reforms, India can build a world-class education system that will benefit its citizens for generations to come. As has already been mentioned above that the education system is one of the most important pillars of a nation’s development. It is through education that individuals acquire the knowledge and skills they need to succeed in life. In India, the education system is facing a number of challenges, including inequality, poor quality, and irrelevance.

In addition, addressing these challenges requires a multi-faceted approach involving government initiatives, private sector participation, community engagement, and collaboration among stakeholders. By addressing disparities in access and quality, investing in teacher training and support, updating curriculum, improving infrastructure, promoting inclusivity, bridging the technology divide, and aligning education with employability, India can overcome these challenges and build a robust education system that empowers its youth and secures a bright future for the nation.

Education in the Union Budget 2023-24, Analysis by Arun C Mehta

Education in Economic Survey 2022-23

New Initiatives to Meet Challenges

The government of India has implemented various initiatives and policies to tackle the challenges in the education sector. Here are some of the ways the government is addressing these challenges:

  1. Right to Education Act: The Right to Education Act (RTE) was enacted in 2009 to provide free and compulsory education to all children between the ages of 6 and 14. It aims to ensure equal access to quality education and addresses issues of access and enrollment.
  2. Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan: The Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan is a centrally sponsored scheme that integrates several existing educational programs to provide holistic support for school education. It focuses on enhancing access, quality, and equity, and includes provisions for infrastructure development, teacher training, digital initiatives, and inclusive education.
  3. National Education Policy (NEP) 2020: The NEP 2020 is a comprehensive policy framework that outlines the vision for transforming the education system in India. It emphasizes access, equity, quality, and lifelong learning. The NEP focuses on curriculum reform, experiential learning, skill development, teacher training, technology integration, and promoting research and innovation.
  4. Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan: This centrally sponsored scheme aims to enhance secondary education by improving access, quality, and equity in government schools. It focuses on infrastructure development, teacher training, curriculum enrichment, and the promotion of vocational education.
  5. Atal Tinkering Labs: The Atal Tinkering Labs initiative encourages a culture of innovation, creativity, and problem-solving skills among school students. These labs provide access to modern technologies such as 3D printers, robotics kits, and electronics components, promoting hands-on learning and entrepreneurship.
  6. Strengthening Teacher Education: The government has taken measures to improve teacher education by introducing programs such as the National Program for Teachers’ Professional Development (NPTPD) and the Integrated Teacher Education Program (ITEP).
  7. Digital India Initiative: The Digital India initiative plans to bridge the digital divide across the country. It includes initiatives like the Digital Infrastructure for Knowledge Sharing (DIKSHA) platform, which provides digital resources for teachers and students, and the provision of internet connectivity in schools.
  8. Skill India Mission: The Skill India Mission focuses on providing vocational training and skill development to enhance employability. It includes programs such as the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) and the National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme (NAPS) to equip individuals with industry-relevant skills.
  9. Monitoring and Evaluation: The government has strengthened monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to assess the effectiveness of various educational programs and policies. Initiatives like the Unified District Information System for Education (UDISE) and the National Achievement Survey (NAS) provide data for evidence-based decision-making and policy interventions.
  10. Public-Private Partnerships: The government is actively promoting public-private partnerships in education to leverage the expertise and resources of the private sector. Collaboration with private entities helps in improving infrastructure, curriculum development, teacher training, and technology integration.

Through these initiatives, the Indian government is actively working towards addressing the challenges in the education sector and building a strong foundation for the future of education in the country. The Indian citizens can also play a crucial role in contributing to the development of the education sector and addressing its challenges. Below, we present a few ways through which citizens of India can also participate:

  1. Supporting Community Initiatives: Citizens can actively engage in local community initiatives focused on education. This can involve volunteering in schools, organizing educational workshops or tutoring programs, or contributing resources and funds to support educational activities.
  2. Parental Involvement: Parents can actively participate in their children’s education by fostering a positive learning environment at home, engaging with teachers and schools, attending parent-teacher meetings, and supporting their children’s learning journey.
  3. Advocacy & Awareness: Citizens can raise awareness about the importance of education and advocate for policy changes that prioritize access, quality, and equity. This can be done through social media campaigns, public discussions, and engaging with policymakers to voice concerns and suggest improvements.
  4. Mentoring & Tutoring: Individuals can volunteer as mentors or tutors to provide academic support to students, particularly those from disadvantaged backgrounds. This can help bridge educational gaps, provide guidance, and inspire students to reach their full potential.
  5. Donating Resources: Citizens can contribute books, educational materials, and other resources to schools and libraries in underserved areas. This helps improve access to learning resources and enriches the educational experience for students.
  6. Participating in Skill Development Programs: Citizens can actively engage in skill development programs and vocational training initiatives. By upgrading their own skills, they can contribute to a more skilled workforce and promote employability.
  7. Encouraging Innovation & Entrepreneurship: Citizens can support initiatives that foster innovation, creativity, and entrepreneurship among students. This can involve participating in mentorship programs, investing in startups in the education sector, or providing guidance to aspiring young entrepreneurs.
  8. Promoting Inclusivity: Citizens can work towards promoting inclusivity in education by supporting initiatives that ensure access to education for marginalized groups, advocating for the rights of children with disabilities, and promoting gender equality in educational opportunities.
  9. Participating in Research & Development: Citizens with expertise in various fields can contribute to educational research and development. This can involve collaborating with educational institutions, participating in research projects, or sharing knowledge and insights to drive innovation and improvement in the education sector.
  10. Lifelong Learning: Citizens should embrace lifelong learning themselves and encourage others to do the same. By continuously upgrading their own skills and knowledge, citizens can set an example for others and contribute to a culture of lifelong learning in society.

By actively engaging in these ways, Indian citizens can make a significant impact on the education sector, contribute to its development, and help build a strong foundation for India’s future. Jai Hind!!!

Educatiom for All in India