Contemporary Challenges in Indian Higher Education: A Concise Appraisal based on AISHE Data
India boasts one of the most extensive educational frameworks globally, encompassing over 1,113 universities and 43,796 colleges. Nevertheless, the landscape of higher education in India bears notable inconsistencies; while certain institutions excel, others falter. This discrepancy is particularly pronounced within state-run universities, which frequently grapple with insufficient funding and resources, curtailing their capacity to deliver exceptional education. Consequently, graduates from these establishments often confront ill-equipped readiness for the contemporary job market, resulting in skepticism among potential employers.
The ensuing discourse discusses the critical revelations from AISHE 2020-21, accentuating the myriad challenges besieging Indian higher education. The All India Higher Education Survey, overseen by the Ministry of Education’s Department of Higher Education, constitutes the primary repository of higher education data. Introduced during 2011-12, AISHE’s latest iteration extends to 2020-21. Despite the noticeable enhancement in the quality of higher education data/statistics in India, asserting comprehensive coverage of all higher education institutions under AISHE remains unsound. Although the count of institutions represented in AISHE has markedly expanded since its inception, not all institutions find inclusion.
Quantitative Insights into Higher Education Institutions
- The domain encompasses 1,113 universities and 43,796 colleges across India, encompassing Government-affiliated and Private establishments within AISHE’s ambit for 2020-21. University count escalated from 863 during 2014-15 to 1,113 in 2020-21. In parallel, college numbers burgeoned from 36,020 in 2014-15 to 43,796 in 2020-21.
- Variations in the typology of Indian universities are evident:
- Central Universities: Established by the Central Government, tallying 54 entities.
- State Universities: Constituted by State Governments, with an aggregate of 416.
- The Deemed to be Universities: Privately endowed with university status by the University Grants Commission, numbering approximately 125, a few of such universities were termed illegal by the UGC.
- Private Universities: Privately instituted, totaling around 361.
- Complementary to universities, the landscape encompasses other forms of higher education establishments, including:
- Institutes of National Importance (INIs): Conferred exceptional standing by the Central Government, 149 such entities exist.
- Technical institutions: Offering courses in engineering, technology, and affiliated domains, India boasts over 3,000 technical institutions.
- Management institutions: Propagating courses in Management, tallying at over 2,000 such institutions.
- Medical institutions: Furnishing courses in the medical field, roughly 500 such institutions prevail.
Manifestly, governmental affiliation is prominent among Indian higher education institutions. Notwithstanding, private alternatives are burgeoning, especially within the engineering and technology sectors. The Government’s strategic interventions encompass:
- Amplified budget allocation for higher education institutions.
- Introducing progressive reforms to foster greater agility and responsiveness in education delivery.
- Galvanizing research and innovation impetus within the higher education precincts. Simultaneously, an endeavor to heighten the influx of international students into India is underway, substantiated by a populace exceeding 50,000 during 2020-21.
Even so, the recent trajectory notwithstanding, the Indian higher education domain contends with several impediments:
- Financial paucity: Governmental funding for higher education falls, precipitating a dearth of faculty and infrastructure in multiple institutions.
- Pedagogical frailty: Academic quality wanes across various institutions due to many factors, including the dearth of qualified educators, resource insufficiency, and an accountability vacuum.
- Relevance deficit: The curricula in numerous institutions scantily harmonize with students’ aspirations and the economy’s exigencies. These quandaries have catalyzed remedial actions, albeit substantial headway necessitates time. Moreover, investment in the education sector as a proportion of GDP falls markedly short of the Kothari Commission’s 1966 recommendation of 6 percent, a prescription rearticulated by the NEP 2020.
Higher Education Enrolment & GER As of 2020-21, the cumulative enrollment in Indian higher education reached a tally of 4.14 crore (41.4 million), encompassing both regular and distance education students. Females accounted for 2.01 crore (20.1 million), approximately 49 percent. Predominant undergraduate fields encompass Arts/Humanities/Social Sciences (32.7 percent), Science (16 percent), Commerce (14.9 percent), and Engineering and Technology (12.6 percent). Postgraduate pursuits are primarily anchored in Management (18.8 percent), education (14.2 percent), and Social Sciences (13.3 percent).
The Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) in Indian higher education stood at 26.3 percent in 2021-22, which indicates that, among every 100 individuals aged 18 to 23, 26.3 have enrolled in higher education. GER’s ascent is discernible from 12.2 percent in 2001-02. A gendered divergence is evident, with women’s GER surpassing men’s: 29.4 percent to 23.1 percent. This phenomenon could be attributed to the amplified presence of women-centric educational institutions and growing cognizance regarding education’s salience for women. The Gender Parity Index (GPI) for higher education, denoting enrollment parity between males and females, stood at 1.01 per the AISHE report.
Regional disparities underscore GER variance, with Kerala (42.1 percent), Lakshadweep (39.9 percent), and Mizoram (39.3 percent) charting the upper echelons, juxtaposed with Bihar (14.7 percent), Uttar Pradesh (16.9 percent), and Rajasthan (17.3 percent) occupying the lower rungs. GER constraints emanate from:
- Financial deprivation: Financial incapacities impede many families’ capacity to facilitate collegiate education.
- Access impediments: Rural regions grapple with a dearth of educational institutions and compromised instructional quality.
- Socio-cultural constraints: Cultural mores deter confident parents from endorsing higher education for their daughters, deeming it extraneous or unsafe.
The Government’s countermeasures encompass:
- Dispensation of scholarships and financial provisions to students.
- Establishment of new institutions in rural enclaves.
- Augmentation of primary and secondary education standards.
- Propagation of education’s pivotal role. Anticipated GER escalation looms on the horizon, notwithstanding extant challenges. India’s objective to attain a 50 percent GER in higher education by 2025 remains robust, underscored by pronounced research and developmental thrust. Over 1.5 million students were enrolled in research programs during 2019-20. Furthermore, India garners global distinction for scientific publications, trailing solely the United States and China.
Further Avenues Illuminated by AISHE 2020-21 Beyond higher education’s quantitative aspects, AISHE 2020-21 casts illumination on several dimensions, including educator count, financial allocations, and infrastructure configuration. Key findings encompass:
- Lingering concerns regarding higher education quality endure.
- Qualification-shortage plagues various institutions.
- Infrastructure inadequacies persist.
- Curricular alignment with student needs and economic requisites remains disjointed.
- Accountability gaps undermine certain institutions.
Sustained endeavors to ameliorate higher education’s caliber are ongoing, albeit with requisite patience for meaningful reform. Overall, though ongoing challenges beset Indian higher education, the country has embarked on remarkable strides in terms of enrollment, GER amplification, gender parity, and research and development investments.
Moreover, glaring disparities encompass education accessibility. While certain establishments enjoy superlative amenities, others grapple with rudimentary infrastructure for robust education delivery. Rural locales, constricted in access, impede students’ academic pursuits, exacerbated by elevated tuition costs coupled with inaccessibility to scholarships and financial relief.
Modern technology and resources similarly underscore yawning disparities. While select institutions bask in cutting-edge resources, others languish without even rudimentary educational amenities. Notably, state-run universities reel from resource scarcity, rendering them ill-equipped to accommodate contemporary technological norms.
Disparities also infiltrate faculty quality. While some institutions sport erudite educators, others confront a dearth of credentialed faculty. State-run universities, hampered by fiscal constraints, find it onerous to attract and retain capable faculty due to remuneration limitations and resource insufficiency.
Finally, research prospects suffer divergent fortunes. Institutions graced with robust research infrastructure juxtapose with counterparts bereft of essential requisites for impactful research. Again, state-run universities grapple with a research and development dearth stemming from financial insufficiency.
To summate, contemporary challenges within Indian higher education encompass:
- Fiscal Dearth: A predominant concern is inadequate funding, imperiling quality education provisions within institutions grappling with financial constraints.
- Pedagogical Quality: Despite a burgeoning multitude of colleges and universities, education quality frequently falters. A deficit of qualified faculty, antiquated infrastructure, and outdated curricula collectively undermine education standards.
- Education Accessibility: Despite enrollment upticks, limited access to higher education persists, especially among marginalized communities and rural locales.
- Outdated Curricula: Technological and scholastic progress outpaces several institutions, with obsolete curricula predominating, inadequately aligning with modern professional demands.
- Intellectual Drainage: India contends with “brain drain,” as talented students and professionals migrate overseas to pursue better prospects, imperiling the nation’s higher education future.
In conclusion, notwithstanding commendable strides, the journey of India’s higher education remains fraught with disparities. Quality of education, access, technology, faculty, and research opportunities warrant attention. The Government’s intervention must extend to address these challenges, as the nation aspires to achieve a 50 percent GER by 2035. Research and development investment surges, as demonstrated by AISHE’s 2019-20 enrollment numbers. Notably, India ranks third globally in scientific publications, trailing only the United States and China. Thus, while challenges endure, India’s commitment to bolstering its higher education landscape remains steadfast.