Indicators of Educational Development: Concepts, Definitions & Real Life Data

List of Indicators of Educational Development

Indicator 1: Adult Literacy Rate: 15+ Population

Indicator 2: Literacy Rate: 15-24 Years Old Population

Indicator 3: Literacy Gender Parity Index

Indicator 4: Expenditure on Adult and Continuing Education to Total Expenditure on Education

Indicator 5: Enrolment in Pre Primary Education Institutions 

Indicator 6: Gross Enrolment Ratio for Age-group 3-5 Years

Indicator 7: Primary Grade I Pupils having attended some form of organized ECCE Programmes

Indicator 8: Habitations having Primary Schooling Facilities within 1 km.

Indicator 9: Rural Population having access to Primary Schooling Facilities within 1 km.

Indicator 10: Number of Primary Schools

Indicator 11: Primary Schools with Buildings

Indicator 12: Primary Schools without Buildings

Indicator 13: Instructional Rooms per School (Primary)

Indicator 14: Primary Schools having Toilet Facilities

Indicator 15: Primary Schools having Toilet Facilities for Girls

Indicator 16: Primary Schools having Drinking Water Facilities

Indicator 17: Single Teacher Primary Schools

Indicator 18: Apparent Intake Rate

Indicator 19: Net Intake Rate

Indicator 20: Gross Enrolment Ratio (Primary Education)

Indicator 20a: Gross Attendance Ratio (Classes I-V)

Indicator 21: Net Enrolment Ratio (Primary Education)

Indicator 22: Retention Rate at Primary Level (Grade I to V)

Indicator 22a: Retention Rate at Elementary Level (Grade I to VIII)

Indicator 23: Repetition Rate by Grade (I to V)

Indicator 24: Coefficient of Efficiency at Primary Level 

Indicator 25: Average Number of Years taken by Primary Graduates

Indicator 26: Survival Rate to Grade V

Indicator 27: Number of Teachers (Primary Education)

Indicator 28: Primary School Teachers having Required Academic Qualifications

Indicator 29: Pupil-Teacher Ratio (Primary Level)

Indicator 30: Primary School Teachers who are Certified to Teach According to National Standards

Indicator 31: Expenditure on Elementary Education as Proportion to GNP Capita

Indicator 32: Expenditure on Elementary Education as Percentage to Total Expenditure on Education

Indicator 33: Household Expenditure on Education

Indicator 34: Pupils having reached at least Grade IV of Primary Schooling who masters a set of nationally defined Basic Learning Competencies

Indicator 35: Disabled Children of School Age group

Indicator 35a: Number of Schools for Disabled Children and Enrolment

Indicator 36: Number of Upper Primary Schools

Indicator 36a: Habitations having Upper Primary Schooling Facilities within 3 km

Indicator 36b: Rural Population having accessed to Upper Primary Schooling Facilities within 3 km.

Indicator 36c: Gross Enrolment Ratio (Upper Primary Level)

Indicator 37: Number of Secondary/Higher Secondary Schools

Indicator 38: Teachers in Higher Secondary/Junior College (10+2 New Pattern)

Indicator 39: Percentage of Trained Teachers (Secondary Education)

Indicator 40: Pupil-Teacher Ratio (Secondary Education)

Indicator 41: Percentage of Schools having Science Laboratory

Indicator 42: Gross Enrolment Ratio (Secondary Education)

Indicator 43: Net Enrolment Ratio (Secondary Education)

Indicator 44: Enrolment in Vocational Education as a Percentage to Total Higher Secondary Enrolment

Indicator 45: Population (age 15 years and above) having completed at least Middle Level

Indicator 46: Expenditure on Secondary Education as Proportion to GNP

Indicator 47: Expenditure on Secondary Education as Proportion to Total Expenditure on Education

Indicator 48: Enrolment (Higher Education) per 100,000 Populations

Indicator 49: Gross Enrolment Ratio (Higher Education)

Indicator 50: Number of Teachers (Higher Education)

Indicator 51: Enrolment according to Different Fields of Study (Higher Education)

Indicator 52: Expenditure on Higher Education as Proportion to GNP Per Capita

Indicator 53: Expenditure on University & Higher Education as Percentage to Total Expenditure on Education

EFA 18 Indicators

Statistical Statements I

Statistical Statements 2

Indicator 1: Adult Literacy Rate: 15+ Population

Definition

Adult literacy rate is defined as the percentage of the population aged 15 years and over who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement on his/her everyday life. Generally, the term ‘literacy’ embraces also ‘numeracy’, the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations. The adult literacy rate reflects the accumulated achievement of primary education and adult literacy programmes in imparting basic literacy skills to the population, thereby enabling people to apply such skills in daily life and to continue learning and communicating using the written word. Literacy represents a potential for the individual’s further intellectual growth and enhanced contribution to socio-economic and cultural development of society.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage of the population aged 15+ that is literate

Discussion

A high adult literacy rate suggests the existence of an effective primary education system and/or adult literacy programmes that have enabled a large proportion of the population to acquire the ability of using the written word (and making simple arithmetic calculations) in daily life. It is common practice to present and analyse literacy rates together with the absolute numbers of adult illiterates, because improvements in literacy rates may sometimes be accompanied nevertheless by increases in the illiterate population, due to the changing demographic structure.

See Also

Literacy Rate: 15-24
years population, literacy gender parity index and expenditure on adult and
continuing education programmes

Lead Agencies

UNESCO, UNICEF, World
Bank, UNDP and UNFPA.

Typical Availability Time Lag

Ten years

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

Collected as a part of Census of India operations once in ten year. The information is collected from the head of the household who is the main respondent. The collection is based on complete enumeration, as all the households of the country are included in the census operations. The Office of the Registrar General of India conducts census. A few estimates on literacy rates are also available on housed hold sample basis. These surveys are conducted by the National Sample Survey Organisation.

Known Indicator Limitations

Since the census is conducted once in ten year, the literacy figures in intermediary years based on complete enumeration is not available. The information is based upon the responses of the head of the household. Generally, tests are not conducted to know abilities of the literate population.

Indicator 2: Literacy Rate: 15-24 Years Old Population

Definition

The number of persons aged 15-24 who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement on their everyday life, divided by the population in that age-group. The literacy rate of the 15 to 24 year-olds has a special significance in reflecting the recent outcomes of the basic education process. It is a summary measure of the effectiveness of the education system.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage of the population aged 15-24 years that is literate

Discussion

A high literacy rate among the 15-24 year olds suggests a high level of participation and retention in primary education, and its effectiveness in imparting the basic skills of reading and writing. Because persons belonging to this age group are entering adult life, monitoring their literacy levels is important in respect to national human resources policies, as well as for tracking and forecasting progress in adult literacy.

See Also

Adult Literacy Rate: 15+ Population, literacy gender parity index and expenditure on adult and continuing education programmes

Lead Agencies

UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank, UNDP and UNFPA.

Typical Availability Time Lag

Ten years

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

Collected as a part of Census of India operations once in ten year. The information is collected from the head of the household who is the main respondent. The collection is based on complete enumeration, as all the households of the country are included in the census operations. The Office of the Registrar General of India conducts census. A few estimates on literacy rates are also available on housed hold sample basis. These surveys are conducted by the National Sample Survey Organisation

Known Indicator Limitations

Since the census is conducted once in ten year, the literacy figures in intermediary years based on complete enumeration is not available. The information is based upon the responses of the head of the household. Generally, tests are not conducted to know abilities of the literate population.

Indicator 3: Literacy Gender Parity Index

Definition

The ratio of the female to male adult literacy rates measures progress towards gender equity in literacy and the level of learning opportunities available for women in relation to those available to men. It serves also as a significant indicator of the empowerment of women in society.

Unit of Measurement 

Ratio of female to male literacy rate

Discussion

When the literacy gender parity index shows a value equal to one, female literacy and male literacy rates are equal. A value less than one indicates that proportionately fewer women than men have basic literacy skills, and conversely, a value exceeding one indicates that proportionately fewer men have basic literacy skills. Note that the value of the gender parity index may be affected by differences in the life expectancy between men and women, especially for the older age groups where women on average live longer than men. In such cases, one should derive literacy gender parity indices by age groups.

See Also

Adult Literacy Rate:
15+ and 15-24 years population and expenditure on adult and continuing education programmes

Lead Agencies

UNESCO, UNICEF, World
Bank, UNDP and UNFPA.

Typical Availability Time Lag

Ten years

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

Not readily available. Can be computed on the basis of male and female literacy rates

Known Indicator Limitations

Since the literacy rates are available once in ten year, it is not possible to develop the index in intermediary years.

Indicator 4: Expenditure on Adult and Continuing Education to Total Expenditure on Education 

Definition

Government expenditure for adult and continuing education expressed as a percentage of total government expenditure on education. This indicator shows the relative share of expenditure on adult and continuing education within overall government expenditure on education. This indicator should be based on consistent data on government expenditure for each level of education that cover public funding for both government and private educational institutions

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total public expenditure on education

Discussion

A relatively high percentage of government expenditure devoted to adult and continuing education denotes the priority given to this sector in national educational policies and resource allocation. When interpreting this indicator, one should take into account the corresponding literacy rates for population aged 15+ and 15-24 years

See Also

Adult Literacy Rate: 15+ and 15-24 years population and literacy gender parity index

Lead Agencies

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

Collected by the Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India as a part of regular collection of annual statistics. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information. The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all the recognised institutions are included in the collection. At present, the publication containing financial statistics is latest available for the years 1994-95 to 1996-97. This contains actual statistics for 1994-95, revised estimates for 1995-96 and budget estimates for 1996-97.

Known Indicator Limitations

Time lag is the main limitation. Other major limitation is that the private expenditure on education is not covered. However, all the private institutions recognised by the Government are covered in the annual collection of statistics.

Indicator 5: Villages without Pre Primary Education Facility 

Definition

Percentage of villages without pre primary education facility to total number of villages

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total number of villages

Discussion

The percentage of villages without pre primary education facility indicates a state’s capacity to prepare young children for primary education and should be viewed in relation to gross enrolment in early childhood care education programmes (age 3-5 years). A high enrolment ratio indicates adequate capacity for this type of programme

See Also

GER for age group 3-5 years

Lead Agencies

UNICEF

Typical Availability Time Lag

Once in 5-7 years

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The indicator is not readily available but can be developed from the information generated by the NCERT as a part of its All-India Educational Survey, Sixth survey being the latest one with September 30, 1993 as its date of reference. The information is collected on habitation basis and all the habitations of the country are included. Information on this indicator is inclusive of the private unrecognised institutions, which are otherwise, do not form part of the regular collection of statistics

Known Indicator Limitations

Since the NCERT survey is conducted once in 5-7 years, the indicator is not available on regular basis. There is no other source of this indicator.

Indicator 5a: Enrolment in Pre Primary Education Institutions (ECCE) 

Definition

Enrolment in pre primary education institutions including government, private, and community programmes.

Unit of Measurement

Absolute Number

Discussion

The enrolment in ECCE programmes should be viewed over time so that growth in enrolment be measured. The indicator should also be viewed in relation to gross enrolment ratio in early childhood care and education programmes (age 3-5 years). A high enrolment ratio indicates adequate capacity for this type of programme. A gross enrolment ratio approaching or surpassing 100 per cent also indicates that a state is, in principle, able to accommodate all children in the official age group concerned by ECCE.

See Also

GER for age group 3-5 years

Lead Agencies

UNESCO, UNICEF, World
Bank, UNDP and UNFPA.

Typical Availability Time Lag

Once in 5-7 years

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The information that is available from the regular sources is not complete. However, it can be obtained from the information generated by the NCERT as a part of its All-India Educational Survey, Sixth survey being the latest one with September 30, 1993 as its date of reference. The information is collected on habitation basis and all the habitations of the country are included. Information on this indicator is inclusive of the private unrecognised institutions, which are otherwise, do not form part of the regular collection of information

Known Indicator Limitations 

Since the NCERT survey is conducted once in 5-7 years, the indicator is not available on regular basis. There is no other source of this information that provides complete information. The regular collection of information under the Department of Education covers only the recognised pre primary institutions.

Indicator 6: Gross Enrolment Ratio for Age-group 3-5 Years 

Definition

Total number of children enrolled in early childhood care and education programmes, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population in the relevant official age group i.e. 3-5 years. This indicator measures the general level of participation of young children in early childhood care and education programmes. It also indicates a state’s capacity to prepare young children for primary education.

Unit of Measurement

Enrolment (Gross) in ECCE centres expressed as a percentage to the population in the age-group 3-5 years

Discussion

A high gross enrolment ratio in early childhood care and education programmes indicates adequate capacity for this type of programme within the country. A gross enrolment ratio approaching or surpassing 100 percent indicates that a state is, in principle, able to accommodate all children in the official age group concerned by ECCE.

See Also

Enrolment in pre primary educational institutions (ECCE)

Lead Agencies

UNESCO, UNICEF, World
Bank, UNDP and UNFPA.

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

Collected by the Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India as a part of regular collection of annual statistics. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information. The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. The official statistics includes only the pre primary recognised institutions and hence the information is not complete. The other governmental departments (women and child development) also run a variety of early childhood centres (balwadi, anganwadi etc.) apart the private unrecognised schools/centres which may also be large in number.

Known Indicator Limitations

The indicator is not readily available. In order to develop it, complete information on enrolment in ECCE centres is required which is not available on regular basis. Apart from the enrolment, the indicator also needs projected population of age group 3-5 years, which is generally not available. Population is available for the census year only, hence, the same needs to be projected in a year for which the enrolment is available. A slight over/under estimation of population may change the GER dramatically.

Indicator 7: Primary Grade I Pupils having attended some form of organized Early Childhood Care Education Programmes

Definition

Number of new entrants to primary grade I who have attended some form of organised early childhood development programme equivalent to at least 200 hours, expressed as a percentage of total number of new entrants to primary grade I. This indicator helps to assess the proportion of new entrants to grade I who presumably have received some preparation for primary schooling through ECCE programmes. The percentage of new entrants to primary grade I who have attended some form of organised early childhood development programme cannot exceed 100 per cent.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage of new entrants to primary grade I who have attended some form of organised ECCE programmes

Discussion

A high percentage of new entrants to grade I of primary education who have attended some form of organised ECCE programme indicates that a large proportion of these children have participated in organised learning activities prior to entering primary school. Progress in schooling is often associated with cognitive abilities acquired at young ages. It is commonly recognised that prior participation in ECCE programmes can play an important role in a child’s future education, because they shape attitudes toward learning and develop basic social skills, but the effect of ECCE activities on children’s cognitive development may vary according to the programme attended. However, this indicator may give an exaggerated picture of access to ECCE, since those children who have access to ECCE programmes are also more likely to have access to primary schools

See Also

GER for age group 3-5 years and enrolment in pre primary education institutions (ECCE)

Lead Agencies

UNESCO, UNICEF, World
Bank, UNDP and UNFPA.

Typical Availability Time Lag

Not available

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The information is not available. The data could be gathered through a sample survey of schools or through household surveys

Known Indicator Limitations

In the absence of requisite data, it is not possible to construct indicator.

Indicator 8: Habitations having Primary Schooling Facilities within 1 km. 

Definition

Percentage of habitations having population 300 and more and served by primary schooling facilities within a distance of 1 km.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total number of habitations having population 300 and more

Discussion

To know whether the existing schooling facilities are equally available or not, indicators of access are used. While analysing accessibility, a number of factors, such as, distance from the house, mode of travel and time need to reach school are considered. Generally, a primary school is supposed to be available within one kilometre from the habitation. Habitation is treated as the lowest unit of planning where schooling facilities are likely to be available. In addition, percentage of rural population served by schooling facilities within 1 km. may also be considered as an indicator of access.

See Also

Rural population having access to primary schooling facilities within 1 km.

Lead Agencies

Typical Availability Time Lag

Once in 5-7 years

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The indicator does not form part of the regular collection of statistics. However, it is available from the information generated by the NCERT as a part of its All-India Educational Survey, Sixth survey being the latest one with September 30, 1993 as its date of reference. The information is collected on habitation basis and all the habitations of the country are included. Structured data capture formats are used for the purposes of information collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

The indicator is not available on regular basis. Only recognised institutions
have been considered in constructing indicator.

 

Indicator 9: Rural Population having access to Primary Schooling Facilities within 1 km.

Definition

Percentage of rural 

population served by primary schooling facilities within a distance of 1 km.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total rural population

Discussion

To know whether the existing schooling facilities are equally available or not, indicators of access are used. While analysing accessibility, a number of factors, such as, distance from the house, mode of travel and time need to reach schools are considered. In addition, percentage of habitations having population 300 and more and is served by primary schooling facilities within 1 km. may also be considered as an indicator of access. 

See Also

Percentage of habitations having access to primary schooling facilities within 1 km.

Lead Agencies

Typical Availability Time Lag

Once in 5-7 years

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The indicator does not form part of the regular collection of statistics. However, it is available from the information generated by the NCERT as a part of its All-India Educational Survey, Sixth survey being the latest one with September 30, 1993 as its date of reference. The information is collected on habitation basis and all the habitations of the country are included. Structured data capture formats are used for the purposes of information collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

The indicator is not available on regular basis. Only recognised institutions have been considered in constructing indicator.

Indicator 10: Number of Primary Schools

Definition

Primary schools are the institutions, which impart education up to grade IV/V and are normally accredited to or sanctioned by some public authority and is known as recognised schools. A recognised school is one in which the course(s) of study followed is prescribed by the government. It runs regular classes. The official entry age for primary education usually varies between five and six years. In principle, this level covers about four/five years of full-time schooling. Primary education constitutes the first cycle of compulsory education.

Unit of Measurement

Absolute Number

Discussion

Number of primary schools over time may be useful to know the growth that is being taking place. This serves only limited purpose unless it is linked to number of habitations and rural population having access to primary schooling facilities. The growth in primary schools should be linked to growth in upper primary schools. The policy directives in this regard are one upper primary school for every three primary schools, which should be examined over time to have real pattern of opening of schools. Since, education of girls is one of the major concerns in most of the states, the number of schools opened separately for girls may also be useful to analyse so as its rural and urban distribution.

See Also

Number of upper primary schools and percentage of rural population and habitations having access to primary schooling facilities within 1 km.

Lead Agencies

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

Collected by the Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India as a part of regular collection of annual statistics. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information. The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all the recognised institutions are included in the collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

The official statistics includes only recognised institutions and hence the information is not complete. Whatever information is available on number of schools is provisional in nature. The year for which the final information is available is 1992-93. Rural and urban distribution of primary schools is also not available on regular basis.

Indicator 11: Primary Schools with Buildings

Definition

Number of schools having buildings as percentage to total number of primary schools.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total primary schools

Discussion

Availability of a school need not guarantee that it has building and other minimum infrastructural facilities required for smooth functioning. Research findings reveal that infrastructural facilities in school help to attract children and also to retain them in the system. Along with the building, its type should also be analysed. Schools buildings are classified under `pucca’, `partilay pucca’, `kachcha’, `thatched huts’, `tents’ and `open space’. Other facilities, in school, such as, drinking water, toilet facilities, electricity, separate toilet for girls, playground, number of instructional rooms and school boundary should also be analysed.

See Also

Percentage of primary schools having drinking water and toilet facilities and average number of instructional rooms

Lead Agencies

Typical Availability Time Lag

Once in 5-7 years

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The indicator does not form part of the regular collection of statistics. However,
it is available from the information generated by the NCERT as a part of its All-India Educational Survey, Sixth survey being the latest one with September 30, 1993 as its date of reference. The information is collected on habitation basis and all the habitations of the country are included. Structured data capture formats are used for the purposes of information collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

The indicator is not available on regular basis. Only recognised institutions have been considered in constructing indicator. Percentage of schools having usable buildings and schools that require major and minor repairs may supplement the indicator.

Indicator 12: Primary Schools without Buildings

Definition

Number of schools do not having buildings as percentage to total number of primary schools.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total primary schools

Discussion

Availability of a school need not guarantee that it has building and other minimum infrastructural facilities required for its smooth functioning. Research findings reveal that infrastructural facilities in school help to attract children and also to retain them in the system. Schools buildings are classified under `pucca’, `partilay pucca’, ` kachcha’, `thatched huts’, `tents’ and `open space’. Schools functioning in an open space and tents are considered schools without buildings. The distribution of schools without buildings is required at the lowest possible level. These schools should be given priority at the time of formulation of plan.

See Also

Primary schools with buildings

Lead Agencies 

Typical Availability Time Lag

Once in 5-7 years

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The indicator does not form part of the regular collection of statistics. However,
it is available from the information generated by the NCERT as a part of its All-India Educational Survey, Sixth survey being the latest one with September 30, 1993 as its date of reference. The information is collected on habitation basis and all the habitations of the country are included. Structured data capture formats are used for the purposes of information collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

The indicator is not available on regular basis. Only recognised institutions have been considered in constructing indicator.

Indicator 13: Instructional Rooms per School (Primary)

Definition

Average number of rooms per primary school used for instructional purposes.

Unit of Measurement

Average number of rooms per primary school

Discussion

Average number of rooms per primary school gives significant information regarding teaching learning facilities made available in the school. This should be analysed in the light of the highest grade up to which the school is imparting education, total enrolment in school, number of sections and number of teachers. This should also be viewed in relation to the schemes, like Operation Blackboard, which ensures at least two instructional rooms in a primary school.

See Also

Percentage of primary schools having drinking water and toilet facilities

Lead Agencies

Typical Availability Time Lag

Once in 5-7 years

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The indicator does not form part of the regular collection of statistics. However, it is available from the information generated by the NCERT as a part of its All-India Educational Survey, Sixth survey being the latest one with September 30, 1993 as its date of reference. The information is collected on habitation basis and all the habitations of the country are included. Structured data capture formats are used for the purposes of information collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

The indicator is not available on regular basis. Only recognised institutions have been considered in constructing indicator. Percentage of schools that need major or minor repairs may supplement the indicator.

Indicator 14: Primary Schools having Toilet Facilities

Definition

Percentage of primary schools having toilet facilities to total number of primary schools.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total primary schools

Discussion

Availability of a school need not guarantee that it has building and other minimum infrastructural facilities required for smooth functioning. Research findings reveal that infrastructural facilities in school help to attract children and also to retain them in the system. Along with the toilet facility, other facilities, in school, such as, drinking water, electricity and separate toilet for girls, playground, number of instructional rooms and school boundary should also be analysed.

See Also

Percentage of primary schools having drinking water facilities and separate toilet for girls

Lead Agencies

Typical Availability Time Lag

Once in 5-7 years

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The indicator does not form part of the regular collection of statistics. However, it is available from the information generated by the NCERT as a part of its All-India Educational Survey, Sixth survey being the latest one with September 30, 1993 as its date of reference. The information is collected on habitation basis and all the habitations of the country are included. Structured data capture formats are used for the purposes of information collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

The indicator is not available on regular basis. Only recognised institutions have been considered in constructing indicator. Availability of toilets in schools need not guarantee that they are in usable conditions.

Indicator 15: Primary Schools having Toilet Facilities for Girls

Definition

Percentage of primary schools having toilet facilities for girls to total number of primary schools.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total primary schools

Discussion

Availability of a school need not guarantee that it has building and other minimum infrastructural facilities required for smooth functioning. Research findings reveal that infrastructural facilities in school help to attract children and also to retain them in the system. Along with the toilet facility for girls, other facilities in school, such as, drinking water and electricity, playground, number of instructional rooms and school boundary should also be analysed.

See Also

Percentage of primary schools having drinking water facilities

Lead Agencies

Typical Availability Time Lag

Once in 5-7 years

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The indicator does not form part of the regular collection of statistics. However, it is available from the information generated by the NCERT as a part of its All-India Educational Survey, Sixth survey being the latest one with September 30, 1993 as its date of reference. The information is collected on habitation basis and all the habitations of the country are included. Structured data capture formats are used for the purposes of information collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

The indicator is not available on regular basis. Only recognised institutions have been considered in constructing indicator. Availability of toilets in schools need not guarantee that they are in usable conditions.

Indicator 16: Primary Schools having Drinking Water Facilities

Definition

Percentage of primary schools having drinking water facilities to total number of primary schools.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total primary schools

Discussion

Availability of a school need not guarantee that it has building and other minimum infrastructural facilities required for smooth functioning. Research findings reveal that infrastructural facilities in school help to attract children and also to retain them in the system. Along with the drinking water facility, other facilities in school, such as, toilet, electricity and separate toilet for girls, playground, number of instructional rooms and school boundary should also be analysed.

See Also

Percentage of primary schools having toilet facilities

Lead Agencies

Typical Availability Time Lag

Once in 5-7 years

Internationally Agreed

Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The indicator does not form part of the regular collection of statistics. However, it is available from the information generated by the NCERT as a part of its All-India Educational Survey, Sixth survey being the latest one with September 30, 1993 as its date of reference. The information is collected on habitation basis and all the habitations of the country are included. Structured data capture formats are used for the purposes of information collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

The indicator is not available on regular basis. Only recognised institutions have been considered in constructing indicator.

Indicator 17: Single Teacher Primary Schools

Definition

Percentage of single teacher primary schools to total number of primary schools.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total primary schools

Despite significant improvement in number of primary schools and teachers, a large number of schools still do not have adequate number of teachers. Though single teacher primary schools over time has declined significantly but still there are schools which have only one teacher. This is irrespective of number of grades up to which the school is imparting education. The number of single teacher primary schools therefore should be analysed in relation to grades, sections, pupil-teacher ratio and number of instructional rooms. This should also be viewed in relation to the schemes, like Operation Blackboard, which ensures at least two teachers in a primary school.

See Also

Number of teachers and pupil teacher ratio

Lead Agencies

Typical Availability Time Lag

Once in 5-7 years

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The indicator does not form part of the regular collection of statistics. However, it is available from the information generated by the NCERT as a part of its All-India Educational Survey, Sixth survey being the latest one with September 30, 1993 as its date of reference. The information is collected on habitation basis and all the habitations of the country are included. Structured data capture formats are used for the purposes of information collection

Known Indicator Limitations

The indicator is not available on regular basis. Only recognised institutions have been considered in constructing indicator.

Indicator 18: Apparent Intake Rate (Grade I as Proportion of Official Entry Age)

Definition

Total number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the official primary school-entrance age. The Apparent Intake Rate (AIR) reflects the general level of access to
primary education. It also indicates the capacity of the education system to provide access to grade I for the official school-entrance age population. This indicator is used as a substitute for Net Intake Rate (NIR) in the absence of data on new entrants by single years of age.

Unit of Measurement

New entrants in primary grade I express as percentage of the population at the official entry age.

Discussion

The number of new entrants should refer to both public and private schools. Data on population (or population estimates) used in deriving this indicator should refer strictly to the official school-entrance age. Care should be taken not to include repeaters in grade I in the calculation, since this will lead to an inflated Apparent Intake Rate. A high Apparent Intake Rate indicates in general a high degree of access to primary education. As this calculation includes all new entrants to first grade, including over-aged and under-aged children entering primary school for the first time, the AIR can be more than 100 percent

See Also

Net intake rate

Lead Agencies

UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank, UNDP and UNFPA.

Typical Availability Time Lag

Not available

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

Data on enrolment in Grade I is available through the regular collection of statistics. The Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India is responsible for the collection. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information. The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all the recognised institutions are included in the collection. Repeaters data is also available.

Known Indicator Limitations

The indicator is not readily available. The computation of indicator needs enrolment in grade I and single-age population `6’. The enrolment that is available is outdated and population projections not available.

Indicator 19: Net Intake Rate – New Entrants to Primary Grade I

Definition

New entrants in the first grade of primary education who are of the official primary school-entrance age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the same age. The Net Intake Rate (NIR) gives a more precise measurement of access to primary education of the eligible, primary school-entrance age population than does the Apparent Intake Rate.

Unit of Measurement

New entrants to primary grade 1 who are of the official primary school-entrance age as a percentage of the corresponding population.

Discussion

Data on both new entrants and population used in deriving this indicator should refer strictly to the official school-entrance age. In principle, the value of this indicator can not exceed 100 per cent. Care should be taken not to include repeaters in grade I in the calculation. This can be a problem especially with respect to under-aged pupils who repeat the first grade when they reach the official-entrance age. A high Net Intake Rate indicates a high degree of access to primary education for the official school-entrance age children and a high proportion of pupils of the same age in the first primary grade, which may favour the pedagogical situation. States aiming to universalise primary education will seek to enrol all children at the official school-entrance age, and thus the Net Intake Rate is a measure of progress in this regard.

See Also

Gross apparent intake rate

Lead Agencies

UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank, UNDP and UNFPA.

Typical Availability Time Lag

Not available

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

Data on enrolment in Grade I is available through the regular collection of statistics. Repeaters data is also available but the age-grade matrix is not available. The Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India is responsible for the collection. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information. The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all the recognised institutions are included in the collection

Known Indicator Limitations

The computation of indicator needs enrolment in grade I distributed according to age and grade and single-age population `6’. The enrolment that is available is outdated and population projections not available. In the absence of age-grade matrix, it is not possible to construct the indicator. One of the limitations of the indicator is that though the children are in the system but due to over-age and under-age, they are not considered in computing the rate.

Indicator 20: Gross Enrolment Ratio (Primary Education)

Definition

Total enrolment in primary education (grades I-V), regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the eligible official primary school-age population (6-11 years) in a given school-year. The GER is widely used to show the general level of participation in and capacity of primary education. It is used in place of the net enrolment ratio (NER) when data on enrolment by single years of age are not available. It can also be used together with the NER to measure the extent of over-aged and under-aged enrolment. GER can sometimes exceed 100 per cent due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged pupils and repeaters.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to corresponding school-age population i.e. 6-11 years

Discussion

A high GER indicates a high degree of participation, whether the pupils belong to the official age group or not. A GER value approaching or exceeding 100 per cent indicates that the country is, in principle, able to accommodate all of its primary school-age population, but it does not indicate the proportion of that population actually enrolled. The achievement of a GER of 100 per cent is therefore a necessary but not sufficient condition for universal primary education. When GER exceeds 90 per cent for primary education, the aggregate number of places for pupils is approaching the number required for full enrolment of the official age-group population. However, in order to achieve universal primary education, the number of under-age and over-age pupils would need to decline in order to free places for pupils in the official primary school age group

See Also

Net enrolment ratio

Lead Agencies

UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank, UNDP and UNFPA.

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Data Collection

Data on enrolment in grades I-V is available through the regular collection of statistics. The Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India is responsible for the collection. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information. The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all the recognised institutions are included in the collection. The projected population (age group 6-11 years) is available from the Office of the Registrar General of India.

Known Indicator Limitations

The enrolment (final) that is available is outdated and the latest one is provisional in nature. The population projections if not reliable, may dramatically change the ratio.

Indicator 20a: Gross Attendance Ratio (Classes I-V)

Definition

Total number of persons attending classes I-V as percentage to total estimated population of age group 6-10 years

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total population of age group 6-10 years

Discussion

GER and NER gives information on coverage of child population in the system but fails to generate information on children whether they attend schools or not. Attendance ratio (gross) provides information on children attending schools, which is calculated by considering number of persons attending classes I-V expressed as a percentage to estimated population of age group 6-10 years. Like GER, the denominator consists of only the official age group, the numerator may include both over-aged and under-aged children as long as they are studying in classes I to V resulting in overestimation.

See Also

Gross enrolment ratio

Lead Agencies

Typical Availability Time Lag Occasional

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Data Collection

Household sample survey conducted by the National Sample Survey Organisation.

Known Indicator Limitations

Time lag is an important limitation. The survey is not conducted on regular basis, hence the information may not be available for the next 4-5 years.

Indicator 21: Net Enrolment Ratio (Primary Education)

Definition

Enrolment in primary education (grades I-V) of the official primary school age group (6-11 years) expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. The NER gives a more precise measurement of the extent of participation in primary education of children belonging to the official primary school age. NER at the primary level should be based on total enrolment in all types of primary schools and equivalent educational institutions, including public, private and all other institutions that provide organised educational programmes at the primary level.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to corresponding school-age population i.e. 6-11 years.

Discussion 

A high NER denotes a high degree of participation in primary education of the official primary school age group. The NER’s maximum value is 100 per cent. An NER that increases over time reflects improving participation at the primary level of education. When the NER is compared with the GER, the difference between the two ratios measures the incidence of under-age and over-age enrolment. If the NER is below 100 per cent, then the percentage difference provides a measure of the proportion of primary school-age children not enrolled at the primary level. However, since some primary school-age children could be enrolled at other levels of education, this percentage difference should in no way be considered as indicating the exact percentage of children not enrolled. A more precise complementary indicator is the age-specific enrolment ratio, which shows the level of participation in education of the population at each particular age.

See Also

Gross enrolment ratio

Lead Agencies

UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank, UNDP and UNFPA.

Typical Availability Time Lag

Once in 5-7 years

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Data Collection

Data on enrolment in grades I-V is available through the regular collection of statistics but the age-grade matrix required in computation is not available. The age-grade matrix is however available through the All-India Educational Surveys conducted from time to time by the NCERT. The Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India is responsible for the collection. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information.  The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all the recognised institutions are included in the collection. The projected population (age group 6-11 years) is available from the Office of the Registrar General of India.

Known Indicator Limitations

The age-grade matrix is not available on regular basis. The population projections if not reliable, may dramatically change the ratio.

Indicator 22: Retention Rate at Primary Level (Grade I to V)

Definition

Enrolment in grade V in a year as a proportion to enrolment in grade I four years back is termed as retention rate at the primary level. Before the rate is computed, the number of repeaters is to be subtracted from enrolment in grades V.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total enrolment in grade I four years back

Discussion

This indicator presents significant information on one of the important components of universal enrolment i.e. retention. If computed at disaggregated levels will help planner to identify areas and focus groups that need immediate intervention.

See Also

Coefficient of efficiency at primary level, survival rate to grade V and input per graduate

Lead Agencies

UNESCO

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Data Collection

The indicator is available through the regular collection of statistics. The Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India is responsible for the collection of enrolment data. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information. The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all
the recognised institutions are included in the collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

The indicator is not available for the current year and is based upon enrolment data in the recognised schools only. Users often question quality of data reported on repeaters. This is because of the fact that the country is following the policy of no detention up to grade V. Retention rate may serve only limited purpose as it fails to provide information about the grade in which the drop out rate is high. For this purpose, grade-to-grade retention or drop out rate would be the most appropriate one to use. In addition, transition rate from primary to upper primary level may also be a useful indicator.

Indicator 22a: Retention Rate at Elementary Level (Grade I to VIII)

Definition

Enrolment in grade VIII in a year as a proportion to enrolment in grade I seven years back is termed as retention rate at the elementary level. Before the rate is computed, the number of repeaters is to be subtracted from enrolment in grades VIII.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total enrolment in grade I seven years back

Discussion

This indicator presents significant information on one of the important components of universal enrolment i.e. retention. If computed at disaggregated levels will help planner to identify areas and focus groups that need immediate intervention.

See Also

Coefficient of efficiency at primary level, survival rate to grade V and input per graduate.

Lead Agencies

UNESCO

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Data Collection

The indicator is available through the regular collection of statistics. The Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India is responsible for the collection of enrolment data. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information. The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all the recognised institutions are included in the collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

The indicator is not available for the current year and is based upon enrolment data in the recognised schools only. Users often question quality of data reported on repeaters. Retention rate may serve only limited purpose as it fails to provide information about the grade in which the drop out rate is high. For this purpose, grade-to-grade retention or drop out rate would be the most appropriate one to use. In addition, transition rate from upper primary to secondary level may also be a useful indicator.

Indicator 23: Repetition Rate by Grade (I to V)

Definition

Proportion of pupils enrolled in a given grade in a given school year who study in the same grade the following school year. This indicator measures the phenomenon of pupils repeating a grade, and is one of the measures of the internal efficiency of the primary education cycle

Unit of Measurement

Percentage of repeaters in a grade to enrolment in that grade the previous year

Discussion

Repetition rates should ideally approach zero per cent. High repetition rates reveal problems in the internal efficiency of the education system and possibly reflect a poor level of instruction. When compared across grades, the patterns can indicate specific grades with relatively higher repetition rates, hence requiring more in-depth study of the causes and possible remedies. In some cases, low repetition rates merely reflect policies or practices of automatic promotion. Repetition rate plays an important role in measuring the efficiency of education system. The maximum repetition rate and the number of grade repetitions allowed may in some cases be determined by the education authorities in order to cope with limited capacity at certain grade levels and to increase the flow of pupils through the education cycle

See Also

Retention rate at primary level, coefficient of efficiency at primary level and input per graduate

Lead Agencies

UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank, UNDP and UNFPA.

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Data Collection

The indicator needs grade-wise enrolment along with repeaters for two consecutive years, which is available through the regular collection of statistics. The Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India is responsible for the collection of educational data. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information. The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all the recognised institutions are included in the collection. The NCERT also disseminates repetition rates occasionally.

Known Indicator Limitations

Since the indicator is not readily available, one has to construct it. Time lag is an another important limitation. The repetition rate is derived by analysing data on enrolment and repeaters by grade for two consecutive years. One should therefore ensure that such data are consistent in terms of coverage over time and across grades. The data users often question quality of data reported on repeaters. This is because of the fact that the country is following the policy of no detention up to grade V.

Indicator 24: Coefficient of Efficiency at Primary Level (Input-Output Ratio)

Definition

The ideal (optimal) number of pupil-years required (i.e. in the absence of repetition and drop-out) to produce a number of graduates from a given pupil cohort in primary education expressed as a percentage of the actual number of pupil-years spent to produce the same number of graduates. One school year spent in a grade by a pupil is counted as one pupil-year. The coefficient of efficiency is a synthetic indicator of the internal efficiency of an education system. It summarises the consequences of repetition and dropout on the efficiency of the educational process in producing graduates. The coefficient of efficiency is the reciprocal of the Input-Output ratio, which is often used as an alternative indicator of internal efficiency.

Unit of Measurement

Coefficient of primary cycle, expressed as a percentage of the actual number of pupil-years

Discussion

A coefficient of efficiency approaching 100 per cent indicates a high overall level of internal efficiency and little wastage due to repetition and drop out. A coefficient of efficiency that is less than 100 per cent signals inefficiency due to grade repetition and dropout. Given that this indicator is usually derived using cohort analysis models that are based on a number of assumptions, and owing to its highly synthetic nature, care should be taken in making comparisons across education systems. From a conceptual viewpoint, economic efficiency and resource utilisation are optimal when most pupils graduate within the prescribed duration of the primary cycle, but this does not necessarily imply achievement of the expected learning outcomes. Also, according to this calculation method, early dropout (i.e. in the lower grades) reduces internal efficiency less than late dropout (i.e. in the higher grades). This means that efficiency from the economic point of view can be in contradiction with educational objectives that aim to retain pupils in school as long as possible or at least until they reach the higher grades in the primary cycle when they would have acquired the prescribed basic knowledge and skills.

See Also

Survival to grade V and input per graduate

Lead Agencies

UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank, UNDP and UNFPA.

Typical Availability Time Lag

Not readily available

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The computation of indicator needs basic information on grade-wise enrolment along with repeaters for two consecutive years, which is available through the regular collection of statistics. The Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India is responsible for the collection of educational data. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted the task that disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information. The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all the recognised institutions are included in the collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

Since the indicator is not readily available, one has to construct it. Time lag is an another important limitation. The data users often question quality of data reported on repeaters. This is because of the fact that the country is following the policy of no detention up to grade V.

The computation is based upon certain assumptions, which if not realised makes the indicator meaning less. The method does not take into account the quality of output that the system is producing. The method takes cognisance of only number of students who successfully complete an education cycle that means learners attainment is ignored. The method also assumes that all the members of a cohort have identical facilities in schools, which may not always be true. Also, the method does not facilitate consideration of socio-economic background of students. The method takes into account only the number of dropouts and repeaters as possible causes of an inefficient system but ignores all other factors.

Indicator 25: Average Number of Years taken by Primary Graduates

Definition

Average number of years the system is taking to produce a primary graduate. A graduate is a pupil or student who successfully completes a level of education i.e. primary. The years input per graduate is obtained by dividing the total number of pupil-years spent by the cohort by the total number of graduates.

Unit of Measurement

Years input per graduate

Discussion

The input per graduate should be compared to the ideal number, which is simply the duration of the education cycle – five years. More than five years input per graduate indicates wastage in the system that may be due to either dropouts or repeaters

See Also

Coefficient of efficiency at primary level and survival to grade V

Lead Agencies

UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank, UNDP and UNFPA.

Typical Availability Time Lag

Not readily available

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The computation of indicator needs basic information on grade-wise enrolment along with repeaters for two consecutive years, which is available through the regular collection of statistics. The Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India is responsible for the collection of educational data. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted the task that disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information. The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all the recognised institutions are included in the collection

Known Indicator Limitations

Since the indicator is not readily available, one has to construct it. Time lag is an another important limitation. The data users often question quality of data reported on repeaters. This is because of the fact that the country is following the policy of no detention up to grade V.

The computation is based upon certain assumptions, which if not realised makes the indicator meaning less. The method does not take into account the quality of output that the system is producing. The method takes cognisance of only number of students who successfully complete an education cycle that means learners attainment is ignored. The method also assumes that all the members of a cohort have identical facilities in schools, which may not always be true. Also, the method does not facilitate consideration of socio-economic background of students. The method takes into account only the number of dropouts and repeaters as possible causes of an inefficient system but ignores all other factors.

Indicator 26: Survival Rate to Grade V

Definition

Percentage of a cohort of pupils who enrolled in the first grade of primary education in a given school-year and who eventually reach grade V. Its purpose is to assess the “holding power” and internal efficiency of an education system. The survival rate to grade V indicates the proportion of a pupil cohort that completes grade IV and reaches grade V. Conversely, it indicates the magnitude of dropout before grade V.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage of a pupil cohort actually reaching grade V

Discussion

Survival rate to grade V of primary education is of particular interest because the completion of at least four years of schooling is commonly considered a pre-requisite for a sustainable level of literacy. The distinction between survival rate with and without repetition is necessary to determine the extent of wastage due to dropout and repetition. Given that this indicator is usually estimated using cohort analysis models that are based on a number of assumptions, care should be taken in making comparisons across states

See Also

Coefficient of efficiency at primary level and input per graduate

Lead Agencies

UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank, UNDP and UNFPA.

Typical Availability Time Lag

Not readily available

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The computation of indicator needs basic information on grade-wise enrolment along with repeaters for two consecutive years, which is available through the regular collection of statistics. The Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India is responsible for the collection of educational data. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted the task that disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information. The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all the recognised institutions are included in the collection

Known Indicator Limitations

Since the indicator is not readily available, one has to construct it. Time lag is an another important limitation. The data users often question quality of data reported on repeaters. This is because of the fact that the country is following the policy of no detention up to grade V.

The computation is based upon certain assumptions, which if not realised makes the indicator meaning less. The method does not take into account the quality of output that the system is producing. The method takes cognisance of only number of students who successfully complete an education cycle that means learners attainment is ignored. The method also assumes that all the members of a cohort have identical facilities in schools, which may not always be true. Also, the method does not facilitate consideration of socio-economic background of students. The method takes into account only the number of dropouts and repeaters as possible causes of an inefficient system but ignores all other factors.

Indicator 27: Number of Teachers (Primary Education)

Definition

Number of teachers teaching primary classes. Teacher is one who in his professional capacity, guide and direct pupils’ learning experiences in gaining knowledge, attitudes and skills that are prescribed by a defined curriculum programme. This indicator is used to measure the level of human resources input, in terms of number of teachers.

Unit of Measurement

Absolute Number

Discussion

Number of teachers over time may be useful to know the growth that is being taking place. This serves only limited purpose
unless it is linked to enrolment and pupil-teacher ratio is computed. The growth in number of teachers should also be linked to trained teachers. This indicator does not take into account differences in teachers’ academic qualifications, pedagogical training, professional experience and status, teaching methods, teaching materials and variations in classroom conditions — all factors that could also affect the quality of teaching/learning and pupil performance. Growth in female teachers should also be measured, as the same in most of the states is not in proportion to their male counterparts.

See Also

Pupil teacher ratio and percentage of trained primary school teachers

Lead Agencies

UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank, UNDP and UNFPA.

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

Collected by the Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India as a part of regular collection of annual statistics. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information. The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all the recognised institutions are included in the collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

The official statistics includes only recognised institutions and hence the information is not complete. Whatever information is available on teachers is provisional in nature. The year for which the final information is available is 1992-93.

Indicator 28: Primary School Teachers having Required Academic Qualifications

Definition

The number of primary school teachers with at least the minimum academic qualifications required by the public authorities for teaching in primary education, expressed as a percentage of the total number of primary school teachers. This indicator measures the proportion of primary school teachers who meet the basic requirement in terms of academic qualifications as specified by the state authorities. It indicates the general quality of human capital involved in teaching in primary education. Teachers are persons who, in their professional capacity, guide and direct pupils’ learning experiences in gaining the knowledge, attitudes and skills that are stipulated in a defined curriculum programme.

Unit of Measurement

Teachers with at least minimum academic qualifications as percentage to total number of primary school teachers

Discussion

A high percentage of teachers having the required academic qualifications denotes the availability of academically qualified teachers and the general quality of the teaching force. Teachers’ academic qualifications, together with pre-service or in-service teacher training, correlate strongly and consistently with pupils’ scholastic performance, which of course is also affected by other factors, such as the experience and status of teachers, teaching methods, teaching materials and the quality of classroom conditions

See Also

Percentage of trained primary school teachers

Lead Agencies

UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank, UNDP and UNFPA.

Typical Availability Time Lag

Data not available

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

Information on primary school teachers having required academic qualifications is not available. However, distribution of
primary school teachers according to qualifications is available through the NCERT All-India Educational Survey, Sixth survey being the latest one with September 30, 1993 as its date of reference. The information is collected on habitation basis and all the habitations of the country are included. Structured data capture formats are used for the purposes of information collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

The indicator is not available on regular basis. Only recognised institutions have been considered in constructing indicator.

Indicator 29: Pupil-Teacher Ratio (Primary Level)

Definition

Average number of pupils per teacher in primary education in a given school year. Teachers are persons who, in their professional capacity, guide and direct pupils’ learning experiences in gaining the knowledge, attitudes and skills that are stipulated in a defined curriculum programme. This indicator is used to measure the level of human resources input, in terms of number of teachers, in relation to the size of the pupil population.

Unit of Measurements

Number of pupils per teacher.

Discussion

The pupil teacher ratio should normally be compared to establish state norms on the number of pupils per teacher for each level or type of education. A high pupil/teacher ratio suggests that each teacher has to deal with a large number of pupils and that, conversely, pupils receive less attention from the teacher. It is generally assumed that a low pupil/teacher ratio signifies smaller classes, which enable the teacher to pay more attention to individual pupils and thus contribute to the better scholastic performance of the pupils.

See Also

Number of teachers and percentage of primary school trained teachers

Lead Agencies

UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank, UNDP and UNFPA.

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

Collected by the Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India as a part of regular collection of annual statistics. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information.  The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all the recognised institutions are included in the collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

The official statistics includes only recognised institutions and hence the information is not complete. Whatever  information is available on enrolment and number of teachers is provisional in nature. The year for which the final information is available is 1992-93.

Indicator 30: Primary School Teachers who are Certified (Trained) to Teach According to  National Standards

Definition

The number of primary school teachers who are certified to have received the minimum organised teacher-training (pre-service or in-service) required for teaching in primary education, expressed as a percentage of the total number of primary school teachers. This indicator measures the proportion of primary school teachers trained in pedagogical skills, according to national standards, to effectively teach and use the available instructional materials. It reveals also a state’s commitment to invest in the development of its human capital involved in teaching activities. Teachers are persons who, in their professional capacity, guide and direct pupils’ learning experiences in gaining the knowledge, attitudes and skills that are stipulated in a defined curriculum programme.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total primary school teachers

Discussion

A high percentage of teachers certified to teach in primary schools implies that a majority of the teaching force is trained and has the necessary pedagogical skills to teach and use the available instructional materials in an effective manner. This indicator does not take into account differences in teachers’ experiences and status, teaching methods, teaching materials and variations in classroom conditions — all factors that also affect the quality of teaching/learning. The details of the training imparted, duration, training agency etc. may also be analysed along with the indicator.

See Also

Distribution of teachers having required academic qualifications

Lead Agencies

UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank, UNDP and UNFPA.

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

Collected by the Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India as a part of regular collection of annual statistics. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information.  The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all the recognised institutions are included in the collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

The official statistics includes only recognised institutions. Male and female distribution of trained teachers is not available on regular basis. Whatever information is available on teachers is provisional in nature.

Indicator 31  : Expenditure on Elementary Education as Proportion to GNP and Expenditure on Elementary Education as Percentage to GNP Per Capita

Definition

Government current expenditure on elementary education expressed as a percentage of GNP shows the share of the value of the total national production of goods and services in a given year that has been devoted to elementary education. Public current expenditure per pupil on elementary education expressed as a percentage of GNP per capita in a given financial year measure the average cost of a pupil in elementary education in relation to GNP per capita. Both indicators when compared with similar indicators for other levels of education also measure the relative emphasis given to investment in elementary education.

These two indicators should be based on consistent data on government current expenditure that covers central, provincial and local government spending on all public primary and upper primary schools and subsidies to private educational institutions, teachers and pupils. The use of this indicator must take into account the coverage of government current expenditure for elementary education and the extent to which the GNP estimates represent the true level of national economic production.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to GNP/GNP per capita

Discussion

High percentage values for both indicators (31) and (31.1) generally denote a high level of spending on elementary education. Indicator (31) measures the overall proportion of GNP that has been spent on elementary education by the public authorities (central, provincial and local). Indicator (31.1) measures the per pupil cost in elementary education in elation to GNP per capita, thereby relating average spending per pupil to the theoretical average per capita income within the state. One should interpret with care a high level of spending per pupil since this could simply reflect low enrolment. Per pupil expenditure as a percentage of GNP per capita should therefore be viewed in conjunction with enrolment ratios. Low expenditure per pupil and low enrolment in elementary education when compared to high expenditure and/or low enrolment in higher education suggests a need to reconsider resource allocations within the education sector, especially if universal elementary education is being given priority.

See Also

GER and NER at the elementary level and expenditure on other levels of education

Lead Agencies

UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank, UNDP and UNFPA.

Typical Availability Time Lag

Not readily available

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India collects information on financial variables as a part of regular collection of annual statistics. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information.  The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. At present, the publication containing financial statistics is latest available for the years 1994-95 to 1996-97. This contains actual statistics for 1994-95, revised estimates for 1995-96 and budget estimates for 1996-97.

Known Indicator Limitations

State-specific indicator is not available. Time lag is an another important limitation. The private expenditure on education is not covered. However, all the recognised private institutions are covered in the annual collection.

Indicator 32: Expenditure on Elementary Education as Percentage to Total Expenditure on Education

Definition

Public expenditure for elementary education expressed as a percentage of total public expenditure on education. This indicator shows the relative share of expenditure on elementary education within overall public expenditure on education. This indicator should be based on consistent data on government expenditure for each level of education that cover public funding for both government and private educational institutions.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total expenditure on education

Discussion

A relatively high percentage of public expenditure devoted to elementary education denotes the priority given to elementary education in the national and state educational policies and resource allocation. When interpreting this indicator, one should take into account the corresponding primary level enrolment, GER and NER and then assess the relative current expenditure per pupil accordingly.

See Also

GER and NER at the elementary level and expenditure on other levels of education

Lead Agencies

UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank, UNDP and UNFPA.

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India collects information on financial variables as a part of regular collection of annual statistics. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information.  The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. At present, the publication containing financial statistics is latest available for the years 1994-95 to 1996-97. This contains actual statistics for 1994-95, revised estimates for 1995-96 and budget estimates for 1996-97.

Known Indicator Limitations

Time lag is an important limitation. Private expenditure on education is not covered. However, all the recognised private institutions are covered in the annual collection.

Indicator 33: Household Expenditure on Education

Definition

Sum total of all the expenditures incurred by the student on general education that includes fees, books and stationery, uniform, transport, private coaching, study tours etc.

Unit of Measurement

Average annual expenditure (Rs.) per student of age 5-24 years

Discussion

General education is highly subsidised. Despite this, the government is giving a variety of incentives. However, it may be still a costly proposition even if we do not take into consideration the opportunity cost. Payment of fees of different kinds, expenditure on books and stationery, uniform, conveyance, private coaching, study tours etc. for which an individual has to incur expenditure, is called private expenditure on education. This is in addition to public expenditure on general education.

See Also

Expenditure on elementary education as percentage to total expenditure on education

Lead Agencies

Typical Availability Time Lag

Occasional

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

Household sample survey conducted by the National Sample Survey Organisation.

Known Indicator Limitations

Time lag is an important limitation. The survey is not conducted on regular basis, hence the information may not be available for the next 4-5 years.

Indicator 34: Pupils having reached at least Grade IV of Primary Schooling who masters a set of nationally defined Basic Learning Competencies

Definition

The number of pupils who have mastered a defined level of basic learning competencies by grade IV (or another grade), expressed as a percentage of the total sample or of the total number of pupils in grade IV (or the corresponding grade). This
indicator seeks to measure learning achievement in respect to the minimum basic knowledge and analytical skills expected of pupils having reached that grade.

Data required include the summary results from competency examinations administered to pupils in grade IV (or another grade) or from other assessments of their learning competencies; and the total sample or total number of pupils in grade IV (or the corresponding grade). The instruments used to measure basic learning competencies (e.g. literacy and numeracy) may include standardised examinations, sample surveys, or simply teachers’ assessments of pupils’ mastery of such competencies.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to the total number of pupils in grade IV

Discussion

The intention of this indicator is to gather information on the basic learning competencies of pupils (as measured against national standards) towards the end of the first stage of basic education. A high value suggests that basic learning competencies are mastered by most pupils in grade IV (or another grade). Pupils showing high learning achievement in grade IV (or another grade) are also likely to perform effectively at higher levels of learning. This indicator of mastery of basic learning competencies should be examined in relation to enrolment and completion rates at the primary school level in order to assess the overall effectiveness of primary schooling in respect to promoting learning by individuals and to larger societal development objectives.

See Also

Retention rate at primary level

Lead Agencies

UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank, UNDP and UNFPA.

Typical Availability Time Lag

Not available

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

Not available

Known Indicator Limitations

Generally data is not available. A few studies have been conducted on learner’s achievement in different parts of the country but the findings cannot be generalised at the state/national level.

Indicator 35: Disabled Children of School Age group

Definition

Total disabled children, expressed as a percentage to total school age population.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total school age population

Discussion

The indicator is vital for planning education of disabled children. It is useful to develop integrated programmes for education of disabled children. Further, the disabled children should be analysed according to type of disability

See Also

Number of schools for disabled children and enrolment

Lead Agencies

WHO, UNFPA and UNICEF.

Typical Availability Time Lag

Not available

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

Not available

Known Indicator Limitations

Not available. If available, outdated.

Indicator 35a: Number of Schools for Disabled Children and Enrolment

Definition

Total number of schools for disabled children and enrolment.

Unit of Measurement

Absolute Number

Discussion

The information on
enrolment and number of disable schools is vital for planning education of disabled children. It is useful to develop integrated programmes for education of disabled children. Further, the disabled children should be analysed according to type of disability

See Also

Disabled children of school age-group

Lead Agencies

WHO, UNFPA and UNICEF

Typical Availability Time Lag

Once in 5-7 years

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The indicator does not form part of the regular collection of statistics. However, it is available from the information generated by the NCERT as a part of its All-India Educational Survey, Sixth survey being the latest one with September 30, 1993 as its date of reference. The information is collected on habitation basis and all the habitations of the country are included. Structured data capture formats are used for the purposes of information collection

Known Indicator Limitations

The indicator is not available on regular basis.

Indicator 36: Number of Upper Primary Schools

Definition

Upper primary schools are the institutions, which impart education up to grade VII/VIII and are normally accredited to or sanctioned by some public authority and is known as recognised schools. A recognised school is one in which the course(s) of study followed is prescribed by the government. It runs regular classes. The official entry age for upper primary education usually varies between ten and eleven years. In principle, this level covers about three years of full-time schooling. Upper primary education constitutes the second cycle of compulsory education

Unit of Measurement

Absolute Number

Discussion

Number of upper primary schools over time may be useful to know the growth that is being taking place. This serves only limited purpose unless it is linked to number of habitations and rural population accessed to upper primary schooling facilities. The growth in upper primary schools should be linked to growth in primary schools. The policy directives in this regard are one upper primary school for every three primary schools, which should be examined over time to have real pattern of opening of schools. Since, education of girls is one of the major concerns in most of the states, the number of schools opened separately for girls may also be useful to analyse so as its rural and urban distribution

See Also

Number of primary schools, percentage of rural population and habitations covered by the upper primary schooling facilities within 3 km.

Lead Agencies

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

Collected by the Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India as a part of regular collection of annual statistics. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information.  The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all the recognised institutions are included in the collection

Known Indicator Limitations

The official statistics includes only recognised institutions and hence the information is not complete.

Whatever information is available on number of schools is provisional in nature. The year for which the final information
is available is 1992-93. Rural and urban distribution of schools is not available.

Indicator 36a: Habitations having Upper Primary Schooling Facilities within 3 km.

Definition

Percentage of habitations having population 500 and more and served by upper primary schooling facilities within a distance of 3 km.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total number of habitations having population 500 and more

Discussion

To know whether the existing schooling facilities are equally available or not, indicators of access are used. While analysing accessibility, a number of factors, such as, distance from the house, mode of travel and time need to reach school are considered. Generally, a upper primary school is supposed to be available within three kilometre from the habitation. Habitation is treated as the lowest unit of planning where schooling facilities are likely to be available. In addition, percentage of rural population served by the schooling facilities within 3 km. may also be considered as an indicator of access

See Also

Rural population having access to upper primary schooling facilities within 3 km.

Lead Agencies

Typical Availability Time Lag

Once in 5-7 years

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The indicator does not form part of the regular collection of statistics. However, it is available from the information generated by the NCERT as a part of its All-India Educational Survey, Sixth survey being the latest one with September 30, 1993 as its date of reference. The information is collected on habitation basis and all the habitations of the country are included. Structured data capture formats are used for the purposes of information collection

Known Indicator Limitations

The indicator is not available on regular basis. Only recognised institutions have been considered in constructing indicator.

Indicator 36b: Rural Population having accessed to Upper Primary Schooling Facilities within 3 km.

Definition

Percentage of rural population served by upper primary schooling facilities within a distance of 3 km.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total rural population

Discussion

To know whether the existing schooling facilities are equally available or not, indicators of access are used. While analysing accessibility, a number of factors, such as, distance from the house, mode of travel and time need to reach schools are considered. In addition, percentage of habitations having population 500 and more and is served by upper primary schooling facilities within a distance of 3 km. may also be considered as an indicator of access.

See Also

Percentage of habitations having access to upper primary schooling facilities within 3 km.

Lead Agencies

Typical Availability Time Lag

Once in 5-7 years

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The indicator does not form part of the regular collection of statistics. However, it is available from the information generated by the NCERT as a part of its All-India Educational Survey, Sixth survey being the latest one with September 30, 1993 as its date of reference. The information is collected on habitation basis and all the habitations of the country are included. Structured data capture formats are used for the purposes of information collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

The indicator is not available on regular basis. Only recognised institutions have been considered in constructing indicator.

Indicator 36c: Gross Enrolment Ratio (Upper Primary Level)

Definition

Total enrolment in upper primary (grades VI-VIII) education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the eligible official upper primary school-age population (11-14 years) in a given school-year. The GER is widely used to show the general level of participation in and capacity of upper primary education. It is used in place of the net enrolment ratio (NER) when data on enrolment by single years of age are not available. It can also be used together with the NER to measure the extent of over-aged and under-aged enrolment. GER can sometimes exceed 100 per cent due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged pupils and repeaters.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to corresponding school-age population i.e. 11-14 years

Discussion

A high GER indicates a high degree of participation, whether the pupils belong to theofficial age group or not. A GER value  approaching or exceeding 100 per cent indicates that the country is, in principle, able to accommodate all of its upper primary school-age population, but it does not indicate the proportion of that population actually enrolled. The achievement of a GER of 100 per cent is therefore a necessary but not sufficient condition for universal elementary education.

See Also

GER and NER at primary level

Lead Agencies

UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank, UNDP and UNFPA.

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Data Collection

Data on enrolment in grades VI-VIII is available through the regular collection of statistics. The Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India is responsible for the collection. Within the Department,
the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information.  The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all the recognised institutions are included in the collection. The projected population (age group 11-14 years) is available from the Office of the Registrar General of India.

Known Indicator Limitations

The computation of indicator needs enrolment in grades VI-VIII. The enrolment (final) that is available is outdated and the
latest one is provisional in nature. The population projections if not reliable, may dramatically change the ratio. Because of the over-age and under-age children, the GER may even cross hundred. The Net Enrolment Ratio is the most appropriates one to use.

Indicator 37: Number of Secondary/Higher Secondary Schools

Definition

Total number of secondary/higher secondary schools. Secondary/Higher Secondary schools are the institutions, which impart education from grades IX to XII and are normally accredited to or sanctioned by some public authority and is known as recognised schools. A recognised school is one in which the course(s) of study followed is prescribed by the government/board.

Unit of Measurement

Absolute Number

Discussion

Number of secondary/higher secondary schools over time may be useful to know the growth that is being taking place. This serves only limited purpose unless it is linked to enrolment. Type of courses, number of teachers, availability of labouratory etc. should also look in to while anlaysing growth in number of secondary schools.

See Also

GER and NER at secondary level

Lead Agencies

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

Collected by the Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India as a part of regular collection of annual statistics. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information.  The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all the recognised institutions are included in the collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

The official statistics includes only recognised institutions and hence the information is not complete.

Whatever information is available on number of schools is provisional in nature. The year for which the final information
is available is 1992-93.

Indicator 38: Teachers in Higher Secondary/Junior College (10+2 New Pattern)

Definition

Total number of teachers teaching higher secondary classes. Teacher is one who in his professional capacity, guide and direct pupils’ learning experiences in gaining knowledge, attitudes and skills that are prescribed by a defined curriculum programme. This indicator is used to measure the level of human resources input, in terms of number of teachers.

Unit of Measurement

Absolute Number

Discussion

Number of teachers over time may be useful to know the growth that is being taking place. This serves only limited purpose
unless it is linked to enrolment and pupil-teacher ratio is computed. The growth in teachers should also be linked to trained teachers. This indicator does not take into account differences in teachers’ academic qualifications, pedagogical training, professional experience and status, teaching methods, teaching materials and variations in classroom conditions — all factors that could also affect the quality of teaching/learning and pupil performance. Growth in female teachers should also be measured.

See Also

Pupil teacher ratio and percentage of trained teachers

Lead Agencies

UNESCO

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

Collected by the Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India as a part of regular collection of annual statistics. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information.  The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all the  recognised institutions are included in the collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

The official statistics includes only recognised institutions and hence the information is not complete. Whatever  information is available on teachers is provisional in nature. The year for which the final information is available is 1992-93.

Indicator 39: Percentage of Trained Teachers (Secondary Education)

Definition

The number of secondary school teachers who are certified to have received the minimum organised teacher-training (pre-service or in-service) required for teaching in secondary education, expressed as a percentage of the total number of secondary school teachers. This indicator measures the proportion of secondary school teachers trained in pedagogical skills, according to national standards, to effectively teach and use the available instructional materials. It reveals also a state’s commitment to invest in the development of its human capital involved in teaching activities. Teachers are persons who, in their professional capacity, guide and direct pupils’ learning experiences in gaining the knowledge, attitudes and skills that are stipulated in a defined curriculum programme.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total secondary school teachers

Discussion

A high percentage of teachers certified to teach in secondary schools implies that a majority of the teaching force is trained and has the necessary pedagogical skills to teach and use the available instructional materials in an effective manner. This indicator does not take into account differences in teachers’ experiences and status, teaching methods, teaching materials and variations in classroom conditions — all factors that also affect the quality of teaching/learning. The details of the training imparted, duration, training agency etc. may also be analysed along with the indicator.

See Also

Number of teachers and pupil teacher ratio

Lead Agencies

UNESCO

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

Collected by the Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India as a part of regular collection of annual statistics. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information.  The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all the recognised institutions are included in the collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

The official statistics includes only recognised institutions and hence the information is not complete. Male and female distribution of trained teachers is not available on regular basis. However, the same is available once in 5-7 years from the All-India Educational Survey conducted by the NCERT. Whatever information is available on teachers is provisional in nature. The year for which the final information is available is 1992-93.

Indicator 40: Pupil-Teacher Ratio (Secondary Education)

Definition

Average number of pupils per teacher in secondary education in a given school year. Teachers are persons who, in their professional capacity, guide and direct pupils’ learning experiences in gaining the knowledge, attitudes and skills that are stipulated in a defined curriculum programme. This indicator is used to measure the level of human resources input, in terms of number of teachers, in relation to the size of the pupil population.

Unit of Measurements

Number of Pupils per Teacher

Discussion

The pupil teacher ratio should normally be compared to establish national/state norms on the number of pupils per teacher for each level or type of education. A high pupil/teacher ratio suggests that each teacher has to deal with a large number of pupils and that, conversely, pupils receive less attention from the teacher. It is generally assumed that a low pupil/teacher ratio signifies smaller classes, which enable the teacher to pay more attention to individual pupils and thus contribute to the better scholastic performance of the pupils. This indicator does not take into account differences in teachers’ academic qualifications, pedagogical training, professional experience and status, teaching methods, teaching materials and variations in classroom conditions — all factors that could also affect the quality of teaching/learning and pupil performance.

See Also

Percentage of trained teachers

Lead Agencies

UNESCO

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

Collected by the Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India as a part of regular collection of annual statistics. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information. The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all the recognised institutions are included in the collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

The official statistics includes only recognised institutions and hence the information is not complete. Whatever information is available on number of schools is provisional in nature. The year for which the final information is available is 1992-93.

Indicator 41: Percentage of Schools having Science Laboratory

Definition

Secondary schools having science laboratory expressed as percentage to total number of secondary schools.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total number of secondary schools

Discussion

The indicator gives information regarding availability of science laboratory in secondary schools. This should be analysed in relation to other facilities available in school and linked to student per section, number of science teachers and also the details of type of equipments that are available in schools.

See Also

Number of secondary/higher secondary schools

Lead Agencies

Typical Availability Time Lag

Once in 5-7 years

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The indicator does not form part of the regular collection of statistics. However, it is available from the information generated by the NCERT as a part of its All-India Educational Survey, Sixth survey being the latest one with September 30, 1993 as its date of reference. The information is collected on habitation basis and all the habitations of the country are included. Structured data capture formats are used for the purposes of information collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

The indicator is not available on regular basis.

Indicator 42: Gross Enrolment Ratio (Secondary Education)

Definition

Total enrolment in secondary education (grades IX-XII), regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the eligible official secondary school-age population (14-18 years) in a given school-year. The GER is widely used to show the general level of participation in and capacity of secondary education. It is used in place of the net enrolment ratio (NER) when data on enrolment by single years of age are not available.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total secondary school age group population

Discussion

A high GER indicates a high degree of participation, whether the pupils belong to the official age group or not. A GER value approaching or exceeding 100 percent indicates that the states are, in principle, able to accommodate all of its secondary school-age population, but it does not indicate the proportion of that population actually enrolled.

See Also

Net enrolment ratio at secondary level

Lead Agencies

UNESCO

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

Data on enrolment is available through the regular collection of statistics. The Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India is responsible for the collection. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information.  The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all the recognised institutions are included in the collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

Time lag is an important limitation. The enrolment (final) that is available is outdated and the latest one is provisional in nature. The projected population (age group 14-18 years) is also generally not available.

Indicator 43: Net Enrolment Ratio (Secondary Education)

Definition

Enrolment in secondary education (grades IX-XII) of the official secondary school age group (14-18 years) expressed as a percentage to the corresponding population. The NER gives a more precise measurement of the extent of participation in secondary education of children belonging to the  fficial secondary school age. NER should be based on total enrolment in all types of secondary schools and equivalent educational institutions, including public, private and all other institutions that provide organised educational programmes at the secondary level.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total secondary school age group population

Discussion

A high NER denotes a high degree of participation in secondary education of the official secondary school age-group (14-18 years). The maximum value of net enrolment ratio is 100 per cent. An NER that increases over time reflects improving participation at the secondary level of education.

See Also

Gross enrolment ratio at secondary level

Lead Agencies

UNESCO

Typical Availability Time Lag

Not available

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

Data on enrolment in grades IX-XII is available through the regular collection of statistics but the age-grade matrix required in computation of indicator is not available. However, the age-grade matrix is available through the All-India Educational Surveys conducted from time to time by the NCERT. The Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India is responsible for the collection. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information.  The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all the recognised institutions are included in the collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

The computation of indicator needs age-grade matrix which is not available so as the projected population (age group 14-18 years).

Indicator 44: Enrolment in Vocational Education as a Percentage to Total Higher Secondary Enrolment

Definition

Enrolment in vocational education expressed as percentage to total higher secondary enrolment.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total higher secondary enrolment

Discussion

In accordance with the priority accorded to vocationalisation of education in the National Policy on Education, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Vocationalisation of Higher Secondary Education was introduced in 1988. The main objectives of the scheme are to enhance individual employability, reduce the mismatch between demand and supply of skilled manpower and provide an alternative for those pursuing higher education without particular interest or purpose. The target laid down in the policy was to divert 10 per cent of higher secondary students to the vocational stream by 1995 and 25 per cent by 2000 AD. The percentage of enrolment in vocational education to total higher secondary enrolment would therefore help to know whether the above objectives are achieved or not. The growth in vocational enrolment should be anlysed in the light of growth taken place in overall higher secondary enrolment.

See Also

GER at secondary level

Lead Agencies

UNESCO

Typical Availability Time Lag

Once in 5-7 years

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The enrolment in vocational education is available from regular sources. It is also available from the NCERT as a part of its All-India Educational Survey, Sixth survey being the latest one with September 30, 1993 as its date of reference. Structured data capture formats are being used for the purposes of information collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

Time lag is an important limitation. Only recognised institutions have been considered in constructing indicator.

Indicator 45: Population (age 15 years and above) having completed at least Middle Level (Grade VIII)

Definition

Distribution of population of age 15 years and above having completed at least middle level of education.

Unit of Measurement

Per thousand distribution of persons of age 15 years and above

Discussion

Distribution of population by education level is a good measure of the quality of the population. It also presents information on completion of middle level, which reflects state’s effort towards achieving the goal of universal enrolment. The attainment of primary and other higher levels by population may also be looked into along with the indicator.

See Also

Literacy rate 15+ population and GER at elementary level

Lead Agencies

UNDP

Typical Availability Time Lag

Occasional

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

Household sample survey conducted by the National Sample Survey Organisation

Known Indicator Limitations

Time lag is an important limitation. The survey is not conducted on regular basis, hence the information may not be available for the next 4-5 years. The indicator is not separately available for school age population i.e. 6-14 years.

Indicator 46 : Expenditure on Secondary Education as Proportion to GNP and Expenditure on Secondary Education as Percentage to GNP Per Capita

Definition

Government current expenditure on secondary education expressed as a percentage of GNP shows the share of the value of the total national production of goods and services in a given year that has been devoted to secondary education. Public current expenditure per pupil on secondary education expressed as a percentage of GNP per capita in a given financial year measure the average cost of a pupil in secondary education in relation to GNP per capita. Both indicators when compared with similar indicators for other levels of education also measure the relative emphasis given to investment in secondary education.

These two indicators should be based on consistent data on government current expenditure that covers central, provincial and local government spending on all public secondary schools and subsidies to private educational institutions, teachers
and pupils. The use of this indicator must take into account the coverage of government current expenditure for secondary education and the extent to which the GNP estimates represent the true level of national economic production.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to GNP/GNP per capita

Discussion

High percentage values for both indicators (46) and (46.1) generally denote a high level of spending on secondary education. Indicator (46) measures the overall proportion of GNP that has been spent on secondary education by the public authorities (central, provincial and local). Indicator (46.1) measures the per pupil cost in secondary education in relation to GNP per capita, thereby relating average spending per pupil to the theoretical average per capita income within the country. One should interpret with care a high level of spending per pupil since this could simply reflect low enrolment. Per pupil expenditure as a percentage of GNP per capita should therefore be analysed in conjunction with enrolment ratios. Low expenditure per pupil and low enrolment in secondary education when compared to high expenditure and/or low enrolment in higher education suggests a need to reconsider resource allocations within the education sector.

See Also

GER and NER at secondary level and expenditure on other levels of education

Lead Agencies

UNESCO
Typical Availability Time Lag

Not readily available

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India collects information on financial variables as a part of regular collection of annual statistics. Within the Department, the Division of Planning,  Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information. The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. At present, the publication containing financial statistics is latest available for the years 1994-95 to 1996-97. This contains actual statistics for 1994-95, revised estimates for 1995-96 and budget estimates for 1996-97.

Known Indicator Limitations

State-specific indicator is not available. Time lag is an another important limitation. The private expenditure on education is not covered. However, all the recognised private institutions are covered in the annual collection.

Indicator 47: Expenditure on Secondary Education as Proportion to Total Expenditure on Education

Definition

Public expenditure for secondary education expressed as a percentage to total public expenditure on education. This indicator shows the relative share of expenditure on secondary education within overall public expenditure on education. This indicator should be based on consistent data on government expenditure for each level of education that cover public funding for both government and private educational institutions.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total expenditure on education

Discussion

A relatively
high percentage of public expenditure devoted to secondary education denotes the priority given to this sector in the national and state educational policies and resource allocation. When interpreting this indicator, one should take into account the corresponding secondary level enrolment, the GER and NER, and then assess the relative current expenditure per pupil accordingly.

See Also

GER and NER at secondary level and expenditure on other levels of education

Lead Agencies

UNESCO

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India collects information on financial variables as a part of regular collection of annual statistics. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information.  The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. At present, the publication containing financial statistics is latest available for the years 1994-95 to 1996-97. This contains actual statistics for 1994-95, revised estimates for 1995-96 and budget estimates for 1996-97.

Known Indicator Limitations

Time lag is an important limitation. Private expenditure on education is not covered. However, all the recognised private institutions are covered in the annual collection.

Indicator 48: Enrolment (Higher Education) per 100,000 Populations

Definition

Number of students enrolled in higher education per 100,000 population

Unit of Measurement

Number of students per 100,000 population

Discussion

The indicator shows extant of higher education facilities that are being used by inhabitants. To see the male and female participation in higher education, the indicator should be separately developed for male and female population. A low ratio means that the higher education facilities are not fully utilised. It would be better to consider the relevant age-specific population i.e. 18-23 years in place of total population and GER is calculated.

See Also

GER and percentage of enrolment according to different field of study

Lead Agencies

UNESCO

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The University Grants Commission collects enrolment in university and other higher education institutions on an annual basis and all the recognised institutions are covered in the collection. The projected population (total) provided by the Office of the Registrar General of India is estimated by using population data up to the 1991 census.

Known Indicator Limitations

Indicator is not readily available. Time lag is an another important limitation. It needs projected population, which if not reliable, may change the indicator, dramatically. In case of a few states, enrolment data is clubbed together and presented.

Indicator 49: Gross Enrolment Ratio (Higher Education)

Definition

Total enrolment in higher education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage to the eligible official population (18-23 years) in a given school year. The GER is widely used to show the general level of participation in and capacity of higher education. It is used in place of the net enrolment ratio (NER) when data on enrolment by single years of age are not available.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to corresponding population i.e. 18-23 years

Discussion

A high GER indicates a high degree of participation, whether the pupils belong to the official age group or not. A GER value approaching or exceeding 100 percent indicates that the state is, in principle, able to accommodate all of its higher education age group population, but it does not indicate the proportion of that population actually enrolled.

See Also

Enrolment per 100,000 population

Lead Agencies

UNESCO

Typical Availability Time Lag

Not available

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The University Grants Commission collects enrolment in university and other higher education institutions on an annual basis and all the recognised institutions are covered in the collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

Indicator is not available.

Indicator 50: Number of Teachers (Higher Education)

Definition

Number of teachers teaching in university and other institutions of higher education. Teacher is one who in his professional capacity, guide and direct pupils’ learning experiences in gaining knowledge, attitudes and skills that are prescribed by a defined curriculum programme. This indicator is used to measure the level of human resources input, in terms of number of teachers.

Unit of Measurement

Absolute Number

Discussion

Number of teachers over time may be useful to know the growth that is being taking place. This serves only limited purpose unless it is linked to enrolment and pupil-teacher ratio is computed. This indicator does not take into account differences in teachers’ academic qualifications, pedagogical training, professional experience and status, teaching methods, teaching materials and variations in classroom conditions — all factors that could also affect the quality of teaching/learning and pupil performance.

See Also

Enrolment per 100,000 population and expenditure on higher education as percentage to total expenditure on education

Lead Agencies

UNESCO

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The University Grants Commission collects number of teachers in university and other higher education institutions on an annual basis and all the recognised institutions are covered in the collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

State-specific number of teachers is not available. Time lag is an another important limitation.

Indicator 51: Enrolment according to Different Fields of Study (Higher Education)

Definition

Enrolment in higher education, in the broad field of study specified, expresses as a percentage to the total enrolment in higher education.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total higher education enrolment

Discussion

The students in higher education system are enrolled in different fields of study, namely, arts, science, commerce, education, engineering, medicine, agriculture, veterinary science and law. The percentage of enrolment in a field of study gives details of their contribution to total enrolment in higher education. This should be analysed separately for master courses and courses leading to doctorates and other research programmes. It should also be of interest to know the distribution of students according to affiliated colleges and those in universities and their constituent colleges. To capture the trend in enrolment under different fields of study, it would be better to analyse enrolment over time and growth rates are calculated. This should also be analyzed in view of the manpower requirements both at the state and national levels.

See Also

Enrolment per 100,000 population

Lead Agencies

UNESCO

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The University Grants Commission collects enrolment in university and other higher education institutions on an annual basis and all the recognised institutions are covered in the collection.

Known Indicator Limitations

Time lag is an important limitation. State-specific information is not available.

Indicator 52 : Expenditure on Higher Education as Proportion to GNP and Expenditure on Higher Education as
Percentage to GNP Per Capita

Definition

Government current expenditure on higher education expressed as a percentage of GNP shows the share of the value of the total national production of goods and services in a given year that has been devoted to higher education. Public current expenditure per pupil on higher education expressed as a percentage of GNP per capita in a given financial year measures the average cost of a pupil in higher education in relation to GNP per capita. Both indicators when compared with
similar indicators for other levels of education, also measure the relative emphasis given to investment in higher education.

These two indicators should be based on consistent data on government current expenditure that covers central, provincial and local government spending on all university and higher education institutions and subsidies to private educational institutions, teachers and pupils. The use of this indicator must take into account the coverage of government current expenditure for higher education and the extent to which the GNP estimates represent the true level of national economic production.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage GNP/GNP per capita

Discussion

High percentage values for both indicators (52) and (52.1) generally denote a high level of spending on higher education. Indicator (52) measures the overall proportion of GNP that has been spent on higher education by the public authorities (central, provincial and local). Indicator (52.1) measures the per pupil cost in higher education in relation to GNP per capita, thereby relating average spending per pupil to the theoretical average per capita income. One should interpret with care a high level of spending per pupil since this could simply reflect low enrolment.

See Also

Enrolment per 100,000 population and expenditure on other levels of education

Lead Agencies

UNESCO

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India collects information on financial variables as a part of regular collection of annual statistics. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information.  The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. At present, the publication containing financial statistics is latest available for the years 1994-95 to 1996-97. This contains actual statistics for 1994-95, revised estimates for 1995-96 and budget estimates for 1996-97.

Known Indicator Limitations

Time lag is an important limitation. The private expenditure on education is not covered. However, all the recognised institutions of university and higher education are included in the annual collection.

Indicator 53: Expenditure on University & Higher Education as Percentage to Total Expenditure on Education

Definition

Government expenditure on higher education expressed as a percentage of total public expenditure on education. This indicator shows the relative share of expenditure on higher education within overall public expenditure on education. This indicator should be based on consistent data on government expenditure for each level of education that cover public funding for both government and private educational institutions.

Unit of Measurement

Percentage to total expenditure on education

Discussion

A relatively high percentage of public expenditure devoted to higher education denotes the priority given to this sector in national educational policies and resource allocation. When interpreting this indicator, one should take into account the corresponding enrolment and then assess the relative current expenditure per pupil accordingly.

See Also

Enrolment per 100,000 population and expenditure on other levels of education

Lead Agencies

UNESCO

Typical Availability Time Lag

Annual

Internationally Agreed Methodology

Yes

Method of Collection

The Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India collects information on financial variables as a part of regular collection of annual statistics. Within the Department, the Division of Planning, Monitoring and Statistics is entrusted this task which disseminates data through their annual publications that contain state-specific information.  The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. At present, the publication containing financial statistics is latest available for the years 1994-95 to 1996-97. This contains actual statistics for 1994-95, revised estimates for 1995-96 and budget estimates for 1996-97.

Known Indicator Limitations

Time lag is an important limitation. The private expenditure on education is not covered. However, all the recognised institutions of university and higher education are included in the annual collection.