Education For All in India with Focus on Elementary Education: Current Status, Recent Initiatives And Future Prospects

Statistical Statements I

  • Table 1:Literacy Rates (7+ Population)
  • Table 2: Rural and Urban Distribution of Literacy Rates
  • Table 3: Adult Literacy Rate (15+ Population)
  • Table 4: Educational Pattern in States & UTs of India
  • Table 5: Number of Schools
  • Table 6: Indicators of Access
  • Table 7: Habitations Served by Schooling Facilities
  • Table 8: Population Served by Schooling Facilities
  • Table 9: Facilities in Primary Schools
  • Table 10: Growth in Number of Teachers
  • Table 11: Indicators Concerning to Teachers
  • Statements II
  • EFA Year 2000 Assessment

Table 1: Literacy Rate (7+ Population): All India, 1991 and 1998

Year Male Female Total
1991 64.13 39.29 52.21
1998* 73.00 50.00 62.00

Source: * NSSO data. Reported in MHRD (2000d).

Table 2: Rural and Urban Distribution of Literacy Rate: All India, 1991 and 1998

Year Rural Urban Total
1991 44.69 73.08 52.21
1998 56.00 80.00 62.00

Source: Same as Table 1.

Table 3: Adult Literacy Rate (15+ Population): All India, 1991 and 1998

Year Male Female Total
1991 61.89 34.09 48.54
1998* 70.00 43.00 57.00

Source: *NSSO data reported in Thakur & Mehta (1999).

Table 4: Educational Pattern in States & UTs of India

STAGE
State/UT Primary Middle Secondary
Andhra Pradesh I‑V VI‑VII VIII‑X
Assam I‑IV V‑VII VIII‑X
Gujarat I‑IV V‑VII VIII‑X
Goa I‑IV V‑VII VIII‑X
Haryana I‑IV V‑VII VIII‑X
Karnataka I‑IV V‑VII VIII‑X
Kerala I‑IV V‑VII VIII‑X
Maharashtra I‑IV V‑VII VIII‑X
Meghalaya I‑IV V‑VIII IX‑X
Mizoram I‑IV V‑VII VIII‑X
Nagaland I‑IV V‑VIII IX‑XII
D & N Haveli I‑IV V‑VII VIII‑X
Lakshadweep I‑IV V‑VII VIII‑X

Note : All other States & UTs have Grades I‑V and VI‑VIII  corresponding to Primary and Upper Primary levels of education.

Source :  Annual Report: 1994‑95, MHRD, New Delhi

Table 5: Number of Schools, All India, 1950-51 to 1998-99

Number of Schools
Year Primary Upper Primary Ratio of Primary to Upper Primary Schools
1950-51 209671 13596 15.4
1955-56 278135 21730 12.8
1960-61 330399 49663 6.7
1965-66 391064 75798 5.2
1970-71 408378 90621 4.5
1975-76 454270 106571 4.3
1980-81 494503 118555 4.2
1985-86 528872 134846 3.9
1990-91 560935 151456 3.7
1995-96 590421 171216 3.4
 1998-99* 626737 190166 3.3
Rate of Growth (%), 1990-98

1.40

2.89

* Provisional,  Source: MHRD (2000a). The author calculates growth rates and ratios.

Table 6: Indicators of Access, All India: 1965 to 1993

Particulars
2nd Survey

1965

3rd Survey

1973

4th Survey

1978

5th Survey

1986

6th

Survey

1993

% of habitations having primary schools/sections  within 1 Km. 68.58 75.58 80.23 83.83 83.36
% of rural population served by primary schools/sections up to 1 Km. 86.33 90.34 92.82 94.45 93.76
% of habitations served by upper primary schools/sections within 3 Kms 55.50 56.85 69.97 74.00 76.15
% of rural population served by upper primary  schools/sections within 3 Km 68.24 68.80 78.83 83.98 85.00

Source: National Council of Educational Research & Training (different survey reports), New    Delhi.

Table 7: Rural Habitations Having Population of 300/500 & More and Served by Primary/Upper Primary Schools/Sections

States/UTs

PRIMARY UPPER PRIMARY
Served within Habitation (%) Served up to 1 km

(%)

Served within Habitation (%) Served up to 3 km

(%)

1986-87 1993-94 1986-87 1993-94 1986-87 1993-94 1986-87 1993-94
Andhra Pradesh 92.74 91.86 97.70 97.51 26.60 29.09 75.97 74.45
Arunachal 80.31 83.03 87.80 90.69 38.01 48.09 56.46 73.22
Assam 78.38 65.80 92.71 89.02 23.01 23.31 84.65 88.00
Bihar 73.70 69.95 95.05 94.32 19.98 20.73 88.70 88.24
Goa 59.59 87.10 91.61 95.83 28.50 53.26 93.63 90.49
Gujarat 96.50 96.03 99.23 98.32 65.88 68.59 91.90 92.30
Haryana 94.02 91.04 98.81 97.17 40.98 44.43 89.36 89.17
Himachal Pradesh 64.12 62.35 89.41 87.68 34.17 34.02 90.19 92.41
J & K 83.90 84.97 94.06 93.75 40.36 39.35 92.38 90.76
Karnataka 92.89 92.08 97.36 97.15 49.12 54.54 87.65 89.11
Kerala 75.16 64.29 88.34 83.54 51.16 38.52 94.42 89.59
Madhya Pradesh 87.92 87.04 95.69 94.75 26.73 27.33 70.35 72.04
Maharashtra 93.12 91.47 98.37 96.22 50.98 54.10 85.22 84.25
Manipur 88.99 82.04 98.18 95.26 42.60 43.08 90.37 90.39
Megahalaya 89.34 83.39 95.79 94.01 41.12 42.52 78.85 81.46
Mizoram 97.79 93.92 98.28 95.27 89.64 86.09 92.43 89.47
Nagaland 98.59 88.79 99.58 93.36 39.03 43.24 64.56 70.13
Orissa 82.76 79.91 96.24 96.13 36.86 39.28 88.90 91.73
Punjab 96.26 89.90 99.58 99.17 33.20 31.50 90.87 86.71
Rajasthan 87.09 86.66 90.83 93.05 38.21 39.55 72.31 76.68
Sikkim 83.53 73.55 90.46 85.95 45.64 41.48 83.89 83.84
Tamil Nadu 80.15 70.53 95.44 99.43 25.55 25.79 82.26 85.55
Tripura 58.52 56.06 86.72 86.79 31.14 30.16 93.88 92.80
Uttar Pradesh 47.61 49.62 86.01 85.64 16.88 17.01 80.95 80.89
West Bengal 73.07 54.76 96.71 91.94 14.53 12.03 82.91 87.66
A & N Islands 72.51 70.53 88.30 81.16 50.48 51.85 82.86 82.96
Chandigarh 90.48 83.33 100.00 93.33 57.89 46.67 100.00 96.97
D & N Haveli 65.66 50.66 89.90 88.82 11.76 18.75 82.35 89.58
Daman & Diu 60.00 59.57 93.33 100.00 42.42 54.05 100.00 100.00
Delhi 95.48 67.72 100.00 88.19 43.81 41.67 97.42 98.75
Lakshadweep 100.00 76.92 100.00 100.00 100.00 69.23 100.00 100.00
Pondicherry 82.00 64.60 98.74 97.08 35.53 34.31 95.43 95.10
All India 77.03 73.24 93.72 93.03 29.78 30.33 82.94 87.91

Source: Same as Table 6.

Table 8:  Rural Population Served by Schools/Sections, 1993-94

State & UT

Ratio of Primary to Upper Primary Schools

Primary Schools/

Sections

Upper Primary Schools/Sections

Within Habitation Up to 1 km Within Habitation Up to 3 kms
1998-99 1993-94 1986-87 1993-94 1993-94 1986-87 1993-94
Andhra Pradesh 5.95 92.45 97.30 97.62 42.99 79.18 79.43
Arunachal 3.92 70.12 73.35 77.87 33.13 42.20 54.39
Assam 3.69 66.27 93.57 88.61 22.40 83.29 87.16
Bihar 3.90 77.19 95.86 95.51 27.13 88.30 88.33
Goa 10.63 91.77 90.60 97.01 63.94 91.80 92.87
Gujarat  – 97.12 99.45 98.78 76.79 94.43 94.48
Haryana 5.74 94.47 99.37 98.47 64.70 93.12 93.26
Himachal 6.50 45.07 76.64 75.97 17.33 76.04 78.22
J & K 3.38 82.68 90.70 92.37 38.41 85.99 86.78
Karnataka  – 91.11 97.24 96.58 60.86 89.78 91.42
Kerala 2.28 76.67 94.39 89.68 50.54 96.22 91.84
M.P 4.11 84.67 92.92 93.55 31.36 69.58 72.60
Maharashtra 1.88 90.65 97.95 95.82 61.08 88.46 87.64
Manipur 4.08 82.26 97.39 94.12 37.25 80.19 82.24
Megahalaya 4.95 74.05 89.22 87.97 25.57 64.99 69.50
Mizoram 1.68 94.30 98.28 95.77 77.58 82.85 83.38
Nagaland 3.13 92.36 99.45 95.05 47.76 66.41 74.54
Orissa 3.49 76.10 92.83 93.74 34.21 83.35 87.88
Punjab 5.00 90.83 99.59 99.32 45.41 92.49 89.68
Rajasthan 2.37 85.39 92.90 92.55 46.96 77.00 79.00
Sikkim 3.82 65.59 83.11 83.44 26.38 76.20 79.01
Tamil Nadu 5.57 77.16 96.02 99.53 35.36 84.07 87.78
Tripura 4.99 55.43 84.12 85.00 24.92 86.31 85.89
Uttar Pradesh 4.57 60.50 88.07 88.60 21.69 81.88 82.09
West Bengal 18.2 61.22 97.38 93.07 14.16 82.79 87.51
A & N Islands 3.69 70.45 83.01 81.75 44.37 73.57 77.03
Chandigarh 1.41 89.86 99.67 96.07 47.15 100.0 99.30
D & N Haveli 2.67 40.05 85.19 86.83 10.07 65.33 76.05
Daman & Diu 2.41 72.25 94.78 99.22 63.67 99.44 100.00
Delhi 4.45 81.93 100.00 93.83 58.31 98.60 99.05
Lakshadweep 4.75 86.32 100.00 99.73 73.29 99.16 98.74
Pondicherry 3.33 74.75 99.02 97.68 43.73 96.48 95.76
All India 3.30 77.81 94.45 93.76 37.02 83.98 85.00

Source: Same as Table 6 and MHRD (2000a).

Table 9: Facilities in Primary Schools: 1993-94

School Management

Schools having Permanent Buildings (%) Average Number of Instructional Rooms Percentage of Schools Having
Drinking Water Urinal Urinal for Girls

Lavatory

Government 38.62 1.64 34.64 13.19 4.97 6.02
Local Body 53.42 1.84 47.80 16.70 6.10 9.06
Private Aided 3.16 1.76 65.96 49.88 32.26 31.53
Private Unaided 4.80 1.84 87.15 78.48 56.53 64.95
All Schools 65.01 1.74 44.23 18.93 8.66 10.86

Source: Sixth All India Educational Survey: 1993-94, NCERT, 1998, New Delhi.

Table 10: Growth in Number of Teachers, All India: 1950-51 to 1998-99 (In ‘000)

Year Primary Level Upper Primary Level
Total Female Total Female
1950-51 538 15.24 86 15.12
1960-61 742 17.12 345 24.06
1970-71 1060 21.23 638 27.43
1980-81 1363 25.09 851 29.73
1990-91 1616 29.27 1073 33.18
1998-99* 1904 34.56 1278 36.31
Growth Rate (%), 1990-98 2.07 4.21 2.21 3.37

* Provisional.

Source: MHRD (2000a). The author computes growth rates.

Table 11: Indicators Concerning to Teachers, 1998-99

State & UT

Pupil-Teacher Ratio

% of Female Teachers Average Number of Teachers, 1993-94
Primary Upper

Primary

Primary Upper

Primary

Primary Upper

Primary

Andhra Pradesh 46 39 34.09 42.53 2.2 5.8
Arunachal Pradesh 38 28 25.74 26.22 2.2 6.7
Assam 35 22 27.88 16.79 2.4 6.5
Bihar 63 49 19.19 22.81 2.1 7.3
Goa 21 17 69.18 68.85 2.8 7.4
Gujarat 51 42 49.80 48.96 2.3 7.5
Haryana 46 24 50.13 34.04 3.3 8.6
Himachal  Pradesh 30 19 39.93 23.47 3.0 5.7
J & K 30 22 37.20 37.77 1.9 7.2
Karnataka 32 49 43.62 46.17 2.0 5.6
Kerala 29 29 70.73 66.46 7.6 18.3
Madhya Pradesh 44 33 28.93 29.80 2.5 5.4
Maharashtra 36 39 50.26 40.00 3.3 8.1
Manipur 19 20 34.57 35.36 3.5 10.2
Megahalaya 39 17 46.98 39.58 2.1 4.8
Mizoram 24 11 48.73 25.52 3.9 6.5
Nagaland 20 18 40.81 41.20 4.9 10.6
Orissa 37 34 24.77 14.71 2.4 3.9
Punjab 42 17 62.59 51.30 3.5 5.9
Rajasthan 44 36 30.66 25.79 2.7 7.8
Sikkim 18 19 45.46 36.51 5.1 13.3
Tamil Nadu 39 40 41.45 48.25 3.8 11.1
Tripura 21 16 22.90 22.35 4.5 12.3
Uttar Pradesh 42 30 25.27 22.44 3.5 5.3
West Bengal 52 36 23.20 26.64 3.3 6.4
A & N Islands 20 21 47.27 53.29 4.0 16.4
Chandigarh 26 22 92.31 89.07 9.4 14.7
D & N Haveli 45 46 32.26 57.05 1.6 9.7
Daman & Diu 49 38 60.23 37.57 6.6 7.6
Delhi 38 29 63.59 65.15 11.2 15.0
Lakshadweep 25 21 41.72 50.00 13.6 44.0
Pondicherry 26 24 60.90 52.44 5.3 13.9
All India 42 37 34.55 36.28 2.9 6.9

Source: MHRD (2000a) and NCERT (1998).