Education For All in India with Focus on Elementary Education: Current Status, Recent Initiatives And Future Prospects

Statistical Statements II
Table 12: Growth in School Enrolment
Table 13: Share of Girls Enrolment
Table 14: Gross Enrolment Ratio
Table 15: Enrolment and Attendance Ratio
Table 16: Retention Rate
Table 17: Repetition Rates in Primary Grades
Table 18: Rates of Efficiency
Table 19: Transition Rates at the All India Level
Table 20: State-specific Transition Rates
Table 21: Out of School Children
Table 22: Likely Year of Achievement of UPE/UEE
Back to Statements I
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Table 12: Growth in School Enrolment (In Million)

Primary Upper Primary
Year  Boys Girls Total  Boys Girls Total
1950-51 13.8 5.4 19.2 2.6 0.5 3.1
1960-61 23.6 11.4 35.0 5.1 1.6 6.7
1970-71 35.7 21.3 57.0 9.4 3.9 13.3
1980-81 45.3 28.5 73.8 13.9 6.8 20.7
1990-91 57.0 40.4 97.4 21.5 12.5 34.0
1998-99* 62.7 48.2 110.9 24.0 16.3 40.3
Growth Rate (%) 1.2 2.2 1.6 1.4 3.4 2.2

* Provisional, Source  : MHRD (2000a). The author computed growth rates (1990-98).

Table 13 : Share of Girls Enrolment at the Primary and Upper  Primary    Levels of Education, All India : 1950-51 to 1998-99 (In Percentage)

Year  Primary Upper Primary
1950-51 28.13 16.13
1960-61 32.57 24.32
1970-71 37.37 29.32
1980-81 38.62 32.85
1990-91 41.48 36.76
1998-99* 43.50 40.50

* Provisional, Source : MHRD (2000a).

Table 14: Gross Enrolment Ratio, All India Level: 1950-51 to 1998-99

Year Primary Upper Primary
Boys Girls Boys Girls
1950-51 60.6 24.8 20.6 4.6
1960-61 82.6 41.4 33.2 11.3
1970-71 95.5 60.5 46.5 20.8
1980-81 95.8 64.1 54.3 28.6
1990-91 114.0 85.5 76.6 47.0
1998-99* 100.9 82.9 65.3 49.1

* Provisional,  Source: MHRD (2000a).

Table 15: State-specific Enrolment and Attendance Ratio

RATIO, 1997-98 ATTENDANCE RATIO, 1995-96
PRIMARY GROSS NET AGE-SPECIFIC
STATE GER NER P UP P UP 6-10 11-13
Andhra Pradesh 90 69 86 56 69 41 75 60
Arunachal Pradesh 97 69 90 65 69 29 65 82
Assam 109 98 91 73 98 43 73 80
Bihar 76 76 54 51 76 33 43 58
Goa 86 61 118 99 61 62 99 89
Gujarat 118 86 95 67 86 52 80 77
Haryana 84 73 106 86 73 52 83 87
Himachal Pradesh 90 68 118 97 68 54 91 94
J & K 67 55 88 81 55 53 69 82
Karnataka 113 89 87 61 89 50 75 70
Kerala 90 72 109 97 72 76 97 97
Madhya Pradesh 102 88 84 62 88 35 64 67
Maharashtra 113 84 106 80 84 55 88 85
Manipur 86 68 91 93 68 43 69 87
Megahalaya 93 50 111 86 50 25 69 94
Mizoram 114 73 102 108 73 39 71 88
Nagaland 94 59 105 107 59 40 71 85
Orissa 91 70 75 59 70 45 63 66
Punjab 82 71 100 86 71 59 85 86
Rajasthan 97 72 74 56 72 35 58 64
Sikkim 113 61 118 75 61 33 77 90
Tamil Nadu 109 85 98 80 85 61 91 74
Tripura 88 80 110 82 80 40 81 84
Uttar Pradesh 62 47 80 54 47 33 61 66
West Bengal 92 56 94 63 56 33 67 74
A & N Islands 87 64 108 116 64 73 94 94
Chandigarh 80 60 142 57 60 45 87 95
D & N Haveli 96 70 98 61 70 55 79 55
Daman & Diu 99 74 138 69 74 57 100 76
Delhi 89 68 107 93 68 70 84 95
Lakshadweep 105 73 138 96 73 69 97 98
Pondicherry 94 74 86 107 74 84 98 93
All India 90 71 85 65 71 43 69 72

P : Primary, UP: Upper Primary, GER: Gross Enrolment Ratio and NER: Net Enrolment Ratio, Source: Thakur and Mehta (1999) and NSSO (1998).

Table 16: Retention Rate at All India Level, 1964-65 to 1998-99 (Percentage)

Year                                        Class V                                  Class VIII

Total                  Girls                     Total                           Girls

1964-65                        37.10                  32.00                         —                                  —

1974-75                        36.80                  33.30                     21.30                             16.30

1984-85                        50.38                  47.54                     35.65                             29.60

1990-91                        61.04                  56.41                     39.10                             34.87

1998-99*                     60.26               58.68               43.18                           39.91

*  Provisional, Source:  Varghese and Mehta (1999a) and MHRD (2000a).

Table 17: Repetition Rate in Primary Grades, 1993-94

GRADES
I II III IV V
Boys 7.6 5.5 7.3 5.8 5.9
Girls 7.9 5.8 7.3 5.8 5.9
Total 7.7 5.7 7.3 5.8 5.9

Source: Thakur and Mehta (1999).

Table 18: Rates of Efficiency (1997-98)

State & UT Input/Output Ratio Years Input per Graduate
Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total
Andhra Pradesh 0.68 0.63 0.68 7.3 7.9 7.6
Arunachal Pradesh 0.61 0.60 0.61 8.2 8.4 8.3
Assam 0.87 0.61 0.75 5.8 8.2 6.7
Bihar 0.60 0.51 0.57 8.3 9.8 8.8
Goa 0.99 0.94 0.96 5.1 5.3 5.2
Gujarat 0.68 0.70 0.69 7.4 7.1 7.3
Haryana 0.84 0.80 0.82 6.0 6.3 6.1
Himachal Pradesh 0.73 0.90 0.81 6.8 5.6 6.2
J & Kashmir 0.82 0.78 0.80 6.1 6.4 6.2
Karnataka 0.72 0.66 0.69 6.9 7.6 7.2
Kerala 1.00 1.00 1.00 4.7 4.8 4.7
Madhya Pradesh 0.91 0.80 0.86 5.5 6.2 5.8
Maharashtra 0.85 0.82 0.83 5.9 6.1 6
Manipur 0.97 0.98 0.97 5.2 5.1 5.1
Meghalaya 0.56 0.51 0.54 8.9 9.8 9.3
Mizoram 0.79 0.81 0.80 6.2 6.4 6.3
Nagaland 0.59 0.58 0.59 8.4 8.6 8.5
Orissa 0.67 0.61 0.64 7.5 8.2 7.8
Punjab 0.93 0.89 0.91 5.4 5.6 5.5
Rajasthan 0.81 0.67 0.76 6.2 7.5 6.6
Sikkim 0.59 0.50 0.54 8.5 10 9.2
Tamil Nadu 0.81 0.82 0.81 6.2 6.1 6.2
Tripura 0.65 0.68 0.66 7.7 7.4 7.6
Uttar Pradesh 0.37 0.24 0.32 13.4 21.2 15.7
West Bengal 0.41 0.29 0.35 12.2 17.3 14.3
A & N Islands 0.98 0.91 0.94 5.1 5.5 5.3
Chandigarh         – 3.8 3.8 3.8
D & N Haveli 0.84 0.78 0.82 6 6.4 6.1
Daman & Diu 0.92 0.90 0.91 5.4 5.6 5.5
Delhi        –     – 4.5 3.8 4.1
Lakshadweep 0.82 0.92 0.87 6.1 5.4 5.8
Pondicherry     – 4.6 4.5 4.5
INDIA 0.70 0.63 0.67 7.2 8.0 7.5

Source:  Thakur and Mehta (1999).

Table 19: Transition Rate (%), All India, 1970-71 to 1997-98

Year Transition Rate
Boys Girls Total Boys/Girls Differential
1970-71 86.80 74.08 82.56 12.72
1975-76 87.99 78.34 84.58 9.65
1980-81 92.11 81.77 88.35 10.34
1985-86 90.79 82.01 87.45 8.78
1990-91 95.20 93.22 94.42 1.98
1991-92 87.00 83.00 85.00 4.00
1997-98* 89.00 91.00 86.00 (2.00)

* Provisional,   Source: Varghese and Mehta (1999a). For years 1991-92 & 1997-98 calculated     by the author.

Table 20: State-specific Transition Rates (Grade IV/V to V/VI)

 State & UT 1991-92 1997-98
Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total
Andhra 85 79 82 95 93 89
Arunachal 76 73 75 85 83 91
Assam 102 87 96 88 88 92
Bihar 78 69 75 94 95 86
Goa 88 82 85 78 79 105
Gujarat 73 74 74 85 84 90
Haryana 78 68 74 72 77 109
Himachal 92 88 90 83 81 92
J&K 140 117 130 103 98 73
Karnataka 76 76 76 94 95 88
Kerala 96 96 96 96 95 102
M.P 81 64 75 91 91 99
Maharashtra 97 89 93 97 97 86
Manipur 89 86 88 76 78 104
Meghalaya 89 89 89 88 89 78
Mizoram 87 85 86 90 91 100
Nagaland 72 78 75 77 79 81
Orissa 83 87 84 96 96 100
Punjab 95 90 93 93 93 88
Rajasthan 98 86 95 97 96 92
Sikkim 56 56 56 84 84 103
Tamil Nadu 82 74 79 88 88 106
Tripura 78 73 76 73 75 73
Uttar Pradesh 91 74 85 92 92 67
West Bengal 102 116 109 67 77 46
A&N Islands 81 76 79 82 83 114
Chandigarh 124 121 122 112 110 84
D&N Haveli 57 64 59 85 77 102
Daman & Diu 75 78 76 90 95 107
Delhi 111 94 103 83 84 81
Lakshadweep 68 77 72 86 82 116
Pondicherry 102 99 101 95 95 87

Source: Calculated by the author based on information given in MHRD publications.

Table 21: Out-of-School Children (1998-99) and Requirement of Additional Enrolment in 2007-8 to Achieve UPE  (In thousand)

State Out-of-School Children, 1998-99 Net Additional Enrolment (Classes I-V) Requirements, 2007-8
Total Girls Boys Total Girls Boys
Andhra 2340 1252 1090 1129 727 406
Arunachal 24 15 9 63 40 23
Assam* 120 225 -104
Bihar* 2955 2477 478 2231 2432 -192
Goa 87 46 41 231 131 100
Gujarat 960 671 289 1039 789 247
Haryana 689 309 380 1100 502 597
Himachal 229 127 101 536 337 202
J&K 384 255 128 629 451 184
Karnataka 937 538 399 681 388 294
Kerala 918 461 456 1037 505 531
M.P* 1413 1230 167
Maharashtra 1662 860 802 2838 1465 1371
Manipur 76 47 30 187 118 71
Meghalaya 101 53 48 214 126 89
Mizoram 20 12 8 66 39 27
Nagaland 59 29 29 137 75 62
Orissa 1161 830 329 1155 888 268
Punjab 748 324 423 1142 486 656
Rajasthan 1754 1498 257 2465 2110 366
Sikkim 17 9 8 47 26 19
Tamil Nadu 957 499 458 311 178 134
Tripura* 95 85 9
U.P 11477 6566 4910 14264 8761 5548
West Bengal 4161 2220 1941 5211 2889 2312
A&N Islands 15 6 9 32 14 17
Chandigarh 50 22 28 113 54 59
D&N Haveli 3 3 0 12 8 3
Daman & Diu 3 2 1 13 8 5
Delhi 517 248 268 1477 788 689
Lakshadweep 2 1 1 4 3 2
Pondicherry 37 20 17 116 70 45
India 33063 20340 12726 40108 25949 13387
Note: * Either the enrolment data and projected population or estimates of    overage/underage children in these states are not reliable

Source: Computed by the author based on the information given in MHRD (2000a)

and NCERT (1998).

Table 22: Likely Year of Achievement of Goals of   UPE/UEE

                                       (Based on Trend Analysis)

       State Primary                                                        Middle       
                                                                 Boys         Girls                        Boys Girls
Andhra Pradesh 2004/05 ** ** *
  Bihar             *                * * *
Gujarat 1995/96 2006/07 2004/05 *
Haryana ** ** ** *
Karnataka 1996/97 1998/99 *** **
Kerala _ _ 1999/2000 1999/2000
Madhya Pradesh 2002/03 ** * *
Maharashtra 2000/01 ** ** *
Orissa 2004/05 * ** *
Punjab *** 2008/09 * *
Rajasthan ** * ** *
Tamil Nadu++ Achieved Achieved 1994/95 1997/98
Uttar Pradesh 2007/08 * * *
West Bengal 2000/01 2007/08 2008/09 2007/08
All India@ 2004/05 2007/08 2007/08 *

* Not in sight

** Sometime after the year 2008/09

*** Just after the year 2008/09

+ Estimates of over-age/under-age not available

++ Tamil Nadu perhaps is the only state which might have already achieved goal of UPE.

Note : @ Disaggregated projections at the state level are supposed to produce more reliable projections than at the all-India level. Likely years are based on the refined enrolment ratios computed on the basis of 23.71 and 15.78 per cent grossness at primary and upper primary levels. The projections are subject to change when more reliable state-specific estimates of overage and underage children are available.

Source: Mehta, 1998.