Higher Education Profile in India 2019-20:  Ministry of Education

The document Higher Education Profile for 2019-20 is published by India’s Ministry of Education (MoE). This report aims to provide a statistical profile of higher education institutions in India and analyze various aspects of the higher education system, which is exclusively based on the All India Survey on Higher Education initiated by the Department of Higher Education of the Ministry of Education.

The report is divided into two main segments: demographic particulars and academic indicators. The demographic profile section includes information such as the projected population aged 18-23 years and the literacy rate.

Analyzing Scheduled Castes Higher Education Enrolment in India based on AISHE 2020-21 Data

The academic indicators section contains data on the number of universities, colleges, standalone institutions, autonomous colleges, and dual-mode universities, and the percentage of colleges in rural areas or exclusively for girls.

Higher Education Profile for 2019-20  also provides information on enrollment in higher education, gross enrollment ratio, gender parity index, pupil-teacher ratio, number of teaching and non-teaching staff, hostel accommodation, and academic infrastructure details. By critically analyzing these aspects and comparing the data over the years, you can gain insights into the state of higher education in India and identify areas that may require attention and improvement.

When analyzing the data provided at the all-India level critically, it is crucial to consider various aspects. Some of the key points to explore could be:

  • Enrollment trends: Look at the trends in enrollment over the years to find that there has been an increase or decrease in the number of students enrolling in higher education. There has been a significant difference in enrollment between male and female students.
  • Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER): The GER indicates the percentage of eligible students in a particular age group enrolled in higher education. Upon analyzing the GER, one finds progress in access to higher education in India.
  • Gender Parity Index (GPI): The GPI measures the equality of access to higher education between male and female students. Over the years, the GPI has improved in India.
  • Teacher-Student Ratio: Evaluate the pupil-teacher balance to determine the availability of teachers in higher education institutions. A lower ratio indicates better access to teachers and potentially better quality of education.
  • Infrastructure & Accommodation: Examine the data on academic infrastructure, including the availability of hostel accommodation and intake capacity; this will help evaluate the resources available to support student learning and development.

At the all-India level, the Higher Education Profile 2019-20 provides several key figures that can be analyzed to gain insights into the state of higher education in India.

  1. Enrollment Trends: The report indicates that India’s total number of universities, colleges, and standalone institutions increased from 39,071 in 2015-16 to 42,343 in 2019-20.; this suggests a positive growth in the higher education sector, indicating increased student opportunities.
  2. Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER): The GER, which represents the percentage of eligible students in the 18-23 age group enrolled in higher education, showed consistent growth. The GER increased from 24.5% in 2015-16 to 25.8% in 2019-20; this implies a gradual improvement in access to higher education for the population.
  3. Gender Parity Index (GPI): The GPI, which measures gender equality in access to higher education, also shows positive trends. The GPI increased from 0.9 in 2015-16 to 0.95 in 2019-20; this indicates a narrowing gender gap, with more females enrolling in higher education than males.
  4. Academic Infrastructure: The report includes information on hostel accommodation and intake capacity. While the exact figures are not provided, this data is crucial in assessing the availability of facilities to support student learning and development. Ensuring adequate infrastructure to accommodate the growing number of students in higher education institutions is essential.

Overall, the data presented in the Higher Education Profile 2019-20 indicates positive growth in institutions, enrollment, and gender equality in higher education in India. However, more detailed information is required to analyze the academic indicators at the all-India level comprehensively.

Critical Issues

Low Gross Enrollment Ratio

    • The gross enrollment ratio in a few states A is significantly lower than the national average, indicating a lack of access to higher education for many eligible students in the state.
    • The state needs to focus on improving infrastructure, increasing awareness about higher education, and implementing policies promoting equitable education access for all population segments.
    • It would be essential to assess the reasons behind the low enrollment ratio, such as poor educational infrastructure, limited availability of quality institutions, or socio-economic factors.

Gender Inequality

    • Many states have a gender parity index lower than the national average, indicating a significant gender gap in accessing higher education.
    • There is a need to address the barriers that hinder female enrollment in higher education, such as social norms, lack of safety, distance to educational institutions, and gender-based discrimination.
    • Encouraging policies, scholarships, and awareness campaigns should be implemented to promote equal opportunities for females to pursue higher education.

Enrollment Decline

    • A few states have shown a decline in enrollment over the years, which is a cause for concern.
    • It is crucial to investigate the reasons behind this decline, such as reduced accessibility, lack of quality educational institutions, or migration of students to other regions.
    • The state should focus on improving the quality of education, enhancing infrastructure facilities, and implementing initiatives to retain students within the state for higher education.

Addressing these critical issues in states with low gross enrollment ratios, gender inequality, or enrollment decline requires a multi-faceted approach. It involves improving infrastructure, promoting awareness, implementing gender-sensitive policies, and ensuring equal access to quality education for all population segments.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

 What are the enrollment trends in different states?

Enrollment trends vary across states. Some states have witnessed consistent enrollment growth, while others have experienced a decline. Factors like the availability of educational institutions, infrastructure, and economic conditions can influence enrollment trends in each state.

What is the Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) in different states?

The Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) differs among states. While some states have a relatively high GER, indicating good access to higher education, others face challenges with a lower GER, showing limited access to higher education for eligible students.

How is the Gender Parity Index (GPI) across different states?

The Gender Parity Index (GPI) varies across states. Some states show higher gender parity, indicating nearly equal enrollment of male and female students. However, conditions still struggle with lower GPI, indicating gender disparities in higher education enrollment.

What are the factors influencing enrollment decline in certain states?

Several factors can contribute to enrollment decline in certain states. Some possible reasons include limited educational infrastructure, inadequate institutional capacity, migration of students to other regions, socio-economic challenges, and lack of awareness about higher education opportunities.

How are states addressing low enrollment and gender inequality issues?

States are addressing low enrollment and gender inequality by implementing various measures. These include enhancing infrastructure, establishing more educational institutions, offering scholarships and financial assistance, promoting awareness campaigns, ensuring safe and inclusive environments, and implementing gender-sensitive policies to encourage equal access to higher education for all.

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