Bihar Caste Census: A Comprehensive Analysis & its Political Implications (November 2023)


 The recent release of the Bihar Caste Census data provides unprecedented insights into the social composition and dynamics in the state. A comprehensive caste census has been conducted for the first time in over 80 years, capturing granular details on the population distribution across various caste groups. The availability of this detailed data has generated intense discussions on social equity, political alignments, and policy interventions required to promote inclusive development.

Key Findings Bihar Caste Census

The Bihar Caste Census reveals that Other Backward Classes (OBCs) and Extremely Backward Classes (EBCs) form most of the state’s population, accounting for approximately 63 percent. Scheduled Castes comprise 19.65 percent of the population, while Scheduled Tribes form 1.68 percent. The remaining 15.52 percent falls under the General Caste category.

Among the OBCs, the Yadav community has emerged as the single largest group, representing 14.26 percent of Bihar’s total population. Other prominent OBC groups include Kushwahas (4.27 percent) and Kurmis (2.87 percent). The EBC category consists of numerous marginalized communities, with the Musahars being one of the most disadvantaged groups, accounting for 3 percent of the population.



The General Category presents a varied picture – while upper castes like Bhumihars (2.86 percent) and Brahmins (3.66 percent) have a significant presence, the socioeconomically advanced Kayasths are numerically smaller, forming just 1.07 percent of the population. However, the Kayasths have the lowest poverty rates at 13.38 percent compared to other General castes like the Bhumihars (27.58 percent) and Brahmins (25.32 percent).

Socio-Economic Disparities

The Bihar Caste Census brings out the stark socio-economic inequalities that persist along caste lines. Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) continue to be the most disadvantaged groups, with 42.93 percent and 42.7 percent of households living below the poverty line, respectively; this indicates high levels of economic deprivation and a lack of access to education and employment opportunities.

Among OBCs, the poverty rates vary significantly – for instance, only 30.49 percent of Yadav households live below the poverty line compared to 47.11 percent for Kushwahas. EBC groups face even higher poverty proportions, such as 57.21 percent for Telis and 64.07 percent for Musahars, reflecting their extreme backwardness.

Even among upper castes, there is a wide gap, with Kayasths having significantly better socio-economic status than Brahmins and Bhumihars. Thus, caste continues to determine access to resources and capabilities across all strata of society.

Political Implications

Given the state’s complex caste arithmetic, the Bihar Caste Census carries important political ramifications. The substantial OBC/EBC population, constituting over 60 percent of the electorate, is a decisive vote bank that could reshape political alignments. Specifically, the Yadavs, the single largest group, will likely gain further prominence in the state’s power structures. However, the Census data also reveals the heterogeneity within the OBC category, which could prevent political consolidation.

The Findings of Bihar Caste Survey Hindustan Times 03-10-2023

The Findings of Bihar Caste Survey Hindustan Times 03-10-2023

Among SCs, the sub-categorization provided by the Census enables a more nuanced understanding of the inter-group dynamics. The disaggregated data on the various Dalit communities can inform more targeted policy interventions for their upliftment. Further, the low ST numbers limit their ability to influence electoral outcomes independently.

For the General Castes, the Census reversals their reduced numerical strength, which could diminish their dominance in Bihar’s political space. However, their entrenched presence in bureaucratic, professional, and business spheres would continue to accord them socio-economic relevance.

Overall, the expanded Census data enables more profound analysis of the complex intersections between caste, economic status, and political power in the state. It highlights the need for collaborations across groups to further equity and development goals.

Key Policy Recommendations

The Bihar Caste Census presents significant evidence to shape policies and schemes towards inclusive growth and social justice. Some of the key policy recommendations are:

Targeted interventions for marginalized groups: Special programs should be designed targeting SC, ST, and EBC groups, which account for nearly 70 percent of the state’s population but face acute deprivation. The focus must be on improving education, skill development, employment opportunities, and access to basic amenities.

Review of reservation policies: The new Census data provides a basis to review the efficacy of existing reservation quotas in education, jobs, and political representation. Reservation policies may need recalibration to ensure fair access to disadvantaged communities.

Women-focused empowerment initiatives: Social awareness campaigns, self-help groups, and leadership training for women should be promoted to address patriarchal constraints faced by women across all castes.

Micro-level planning: Granular caste data for each district and sub-district should inform localized planning and implementation of development schemes. The micro-level analysis is key for context-specific solutions.

Multi-dimensional programs: Government interventions should adopt a multi-dimensional approach spanning health, nutrition, housing, and infrastructure in holistic programs for marginalized settlements. Siloed schemes will have a limited impact.

Transparent and accountable governance: Fair selection of beneficiaries, timely transfers, and grievance redressal are crucial for efficiently allocating funds for marginalized groups. Transparency and accountability in governance should be strengthened.

Concluding Observations

The Bihar Caste Census provides invaluable data to diagnose the state’s socio-economic challenges and craft solutions for an equitable society. However, realizing the goals of social justice and inclusive development will require committed leadership across political ideologies. Constructive dialogue, honest introspection, and collective action are needed to translate the Census findings into progress for the marginalized. The political will to allocate resources and the administrative capacity to implement programs effectively will ultimately determine whether Bihar can successfully leverage its census data. Maybe the 2021 Census, when launched, also covers the caste composition of the population.

Frequently Asked Questions | Education for All in India

What is the significance of the Bihar Caste Census?

The Bihar Caste Census provides detailed insights into the social composition of the state, offering information on caste demographics and their socio-economic conditions. This data is crucial for understanding disparities, formulating inclusive policies, and analyzing political implications.

What are the key findings of the Bihar Caste Census?

OBCs and EBCs constitute approximately 63 percent of the population.

Yadavs are the largest OBC group at 14.26 percent, followed by Kushwahas (4.27 percent) and Kurmis (2.87 percent).

Scheduled Castes make up 19.65 percent, Scheduled Tribes 1.68 percent, and General Castes 15.52 percent.

Socio-economic disparities persist, with SCs and STs facing high poverty rates.

How do socio-economic disparities vary across castes in Bihar?

SCs and STs experience high poverty rates (42.93 percent and 42.7 percent, respectively).

OBCs show variation, with Yadavs having a lower poverty rate (30.49 percent) compared to Kushwahas (47.11 percent).

EBCs, like Musahars, face extreme poverty, with rates as high as 64.07 percent.

What are the political implications of the Bihar Caste Census?

OBCs/EBCs, constituting over 60 percent of the population, could reshape political alignments.

Yadavs, as the largest OBC group, may gain prominence, but heterogeneity within OBCs could prevent full consolidation.

General Castes may see reduced numerical strength, potentially diminishing their political dominance.

What are the policy recommendations based on the Census data?

Targeted interventions for SC, ST, and EBC groups to address their acute deprivation.

Review of reservation policies for fair access to education, jobs, and political representation.

Women-focused empowerment initiatives to address patriarchal constraints.

Micro-level planning for localized development schemes and multi-dimensional programs.

How can the Census data be used for policymaking?

The data can inform targeted interventions for marginalized groups.

It provides a basis for reviewing and recalibrating reservation policies.

Micro-level planning ensures context-specific solutions, and multi-dimensional programs address holistic needs.

What is the role of transparent and accountable governance in implementing policies?

Fair selection of beneficiaries, timely transfers, and grievance redressal are crucial.

Transparency and accountability in governance strengthen the efficient allocation of funds for marginalized groups.

What is the overall conclusion drawn from the Bihar Caste Census?

The Census offers valuable insights into socio-economic challenges and calls for committed leadership.

Social justice and inclusive development require constructive dialogue, honest introspection, and collective action.

Political will and administrative capacity are crucial for leveraging census data for progress in Bihar.