### Non-Formal Education Programmes: A Suggestive Framework of NFE Indicators

**ARUN C MEHTA**

**Fellow, NIEPA, New Delhi – 110016 (INDIA)**

**Background**

Free and compulsory elementary education is constitutional commitment and is a fundamental right in India. Though the Government is the main provider of elementary education but a large number of private and voluntary agencies are also involved in providing school education. Impressive progress has been made in all spheres of elementary education but despite spectacular quantitative expansion of educational facilities, the goal of universal elementary education is still a far distant dream. It is because of the continuous efforts, enrolment at all levels of education increased many fold ever since the adoption of the Constitution in 1950. In the recent past, Government of India initiated a number of programmes most of which have been initiated during the last decade. Except in case of a few programmes, activities were focused around the primary level of education. The new Government initiative, namely the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (Education for All) expanded the coverage not only to the entire elementary level of education but to all the districts of the country.

Despite all around improvement in school education, there is a significant number of out of school, never enrolled and dropped out children. Still, a number of habitations do not have access to primary and upper primary schooling facilities. In view of large number of out of school children and un-served habitations, concerted efforts have been made across the county in the form of non-formal education that has been recently renamed as the Education Guarantee Scheme and Alternative & Innovative Education (EGS & AIE).

**Type of NFE Programmes**

The first important information that is required to build indicators framework is to know about the type of NFE programmes being offered and also the major providers. Apart from education sector, NFE programmes are also being offered by the other sectors of economy but information about these programmes are not fully known. Even all types of NFE providers and programmes within the education sector are not properly documented. UNESCO, Paris has recently initiated efforts to develop NFE-MIS and in this direction, pilot studies have been conducted in the districts of Hyderabad and Indore. The outcome of these studies revealed that there are a vast variety of NFE programmes that are being offered within and outside education sector. Governmental as well as non-governmental agencies are the providers of these programmes.

Before, a framework for NFE indicators is developed, it is necessary to know in detail type of NFE programmes being offered and also the providers. In this regard, information on the following aspects of NFE programmes is crucial:

- Type of programmes: Detailed list and characteristics of programmes offered at different levels distributed by nature of programme (like ECCE, literacy, out of school children, continuing education etc.), location, outputs, objectives, contents, teaching/learning methods, educators and learners.
- Providers/Agency: Providers distributed by type of programmes at different levels and by location. The providers may either be government or non-governmental agencies. Non-governmental agencies can further be divided into aided, unaided, voluntary and missionary management; and
- Providers/Agencies that offer programmes for special target/clientele/focus groups by location.

The information on the above aspects has already been collected in the two pilot districts mentioned above. In view of which, all the NFE programmes can be grouped under the following headings:

- Literacy programmes
- Schooling for out-of-school children
- Life skill training
- Rural development
- Income generation training
- Non-formal higher education
- Religious education; and
- Leisure education

**Target/Focus Groups**

Further, the pilot studies revealed that NFE programmes that are being offered are targeted to a specific group(s) for which specific programmes have been designed and implemented. By and large, the ongoing NFE programmes are targeted to the following focus/target groups:

- Illiterates
- Neo-literates
- Out-of-school children/youths
- Women and girls
- Rural poor
- Urban poor; and
- Ethnic/linguistic minority groups.

The NFE providers have initiated programmes for the above mentioned target groups but within these groups they concentrate on different age groups. These age groups vary from NFE provider to provider.

**Clientele Age Groups**

Perhaps the most crucial information that is required for planning and monitoring of NFE programmes is the clientele population. Most of the monitoring indicators can be worked out, if the clientele population for which NFE programmes are initiated is known. In the absence of which, it would rather difficult to estimate need, demand, and participation at different levels. Not only the present information is required but future information is also required to enable reliable planning for NFE programmes.

In view of the type and objectives of NFE programmes, information on clientele population is required at community (village/habitation), cluster, block, district, state and national levels. In most of the cases, both male and female population is required at all these levels. Following are the known age groups in case of the formal education system:

- 3-5: ECCE programme
- 6-11: Primary education (Classes I to V)
- 11-14: Upper primary education (Classes VI to VIII)
- 6-14: Elementary education (Classes I to VIII)
- Single age-6: Official entry age for Grade I; and
- 15-35: Adult literacy and continuing education programmes.

For example, for ECCE and pre-primary programmes, the corresponding age group is 3-5 year. For programmes concerning elementary education, relevant age group is 6-14 years. For adult literacy and continuing education programmes, corresponding age groups are 15-35 year or 15+ population. But non-formal activities, as mentioned above, do not confine only to these age groups but vary from provider to provider and programme to programme. Many of these programmes are being run by the non-governmental voluntary agencies also. The NFE programmes within the education sector can be broadly grouped into the following four categories:

- Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)
- Literacy (adult illiterates)
- Out-of-School children (including EGS) and youth; and
- Continuing education.

**Type of NFE Providers**

The pilot studies further revealed that a vast majority of providers have offered a variety of NFE programmes which are grouped into the following categories:

- Government: Central/State Government/Joint programme of Central and State Government
- Cooperative: Agency/registered society where profits are shared by contributing members
- Industrial/business/service enterprise
- Education/training institutes
- Professional association/trade unions
- Religious bodies/missions (agencies registered by a religious organization like Islamic, Hindu, Buddhist, Christian, Jewish etc.)
- Community based organizations (CBO)
- National branch of International NGO
- Local branch of National NGO
- Local NGO (an NGO with only one office at the Sub-national level)
- Private bodies/individuals; andInternational funding and /or technical assistance agency like, UNESO, UNICEF, UNDP, DFID, USAID, SIDA, DANIDA, GTZ, World Bank, ADB etc.

**NFE-MIS & Core Group of NFE Indicators**

The pilot studies have also revealed that little or no information is available on different aspects of all these NFE programmes. A number of providers offer NFE programmes of similar nature but they do not share information, which is of common interest. However, a few NFE providers have some short of regular collection of information system but the same is not fully utilized in developing similar NFE programmes in future and also monitoring the existing programmes. Whatever the information is available on NFE programmes and providers is scattered and not available at one place. Therefore, there is a need to develop MIS for the NFE programmes initiatives for which have already been made by the UNESCO, Paris. Data capture formats have been developed and data collected in the pilot districts. Computer software is also being developed for this purpose.

To ensure full utilization of information collected, a set of core group of indicators needs to be developed so that the NFE providers can use them in knowing different aspects of programmes that they offer. Raw data collected about the NFE programmes and providers is of the limited use unless the same is analyzed and used in planning and monitoring of NFE programmes. The raw data therefore not only need to be analyzed but refined also so as to convert it into useful information. This can be done in a variety of ways. Whatever the set of indicators is developed, it would centered around the providers, type of programmes, target groups and also the age group of learners.

**Who is the Clientele of the Module?**

The main user of the present module is the NFE providers and managers of the NFE programmes at all levels. Efforts have been made to keep the language and presentation simple and understandable so that the NFE functionary working at the grassroots level can also understand not only the meaning of indicators but should also construct indicators for NFE programme in which he/she is interested and involved.

**Objectives of the Module**

The following are the main objectives of the present module on indicators development:

- to emphasis the need of developing indicators for the NFE programmes
- to explain meaning of indicators by taking examples in a simple way
- will facilitate users in constructing indicators of their choice
- to suggest a core group of NFE indicators according to type of providers, age group and nature of NFE programme; and
- to present the meaning of an indicator, its objectives, definitions, limitations, interpretations, information requirements and source of information.

Before specific indicators for monitoring NFE programmes are presented, first basic questions concerning indicator itself is presented.

**What is an Indicator?**

To understand what is indicator? and other questions of similar nature, let us first define an indicator itself. An indicator is that which points out or directs attention to something (Oxford Dictionary). According to Jonstone (1981), an indicator should be something giving a broad indication of the state of the situation being investigated. Indicator is not an elementary item of information but it is processed information. Indicators are often compared to a ‘norm’ or a ‘standard’ (like pupil-instructor ratio) or to a previous score. Indicators reflect the way in which an objective can be achieved as well as to what degree approximately the objective has been achieved at any stage. The following are the main characteristics of a good indicator:

- An indicator should provide useful information to the providers
- Its ability to summarize information without distortions
- Its precision and comparability
- Its reliability and frequency of updating
- It allows to relate it with other indicators for global analysis
- It measures how far or how close one is from the objectives
- It helps to identify problematic or unacceptable situation
- It meets policy concerns; and
- It helps to compare its value to a reference value, to a norm/standard or itself, as computed for different periods.

Raw data needs to be changed first in the derived or indicators form. By using derived data, meaningful conclusions can be drawn about the NFE programmes under implementation and its providers, clientele for which a programme is initiated and other aspects of the programme. By using simple statistical tools such as Averages, Percentage, Rate and Ratio and Index Numbers, raw data is converted in the indicator form. This has been explained below by taking examples:

‘Averages’ can be calculated in a variety of ways. This has been explained below by taking examples. Similar to these examples, averages can also be worked out in case of NFE programmes.

Example 1: Let us suppose that attendance in case of a NFE Centre for six days is given as follows:

Day | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Attendance | 20 | 22 | 22 | 18 | 21 | 23 |

The average attendance is simply work out by adding number of pupils attended NFE Centre on all these days i.e. 20+22+22+18+21+23 = 126, which is then divided by the number of days for which attendance is available i.e. 6.

Average Daily Attendance = 126/6 = 21.

This means that on an average 21 learners attended NFE centers during 6 days for which attendance data is available. While analyzing average attendance, it may be kept in mind that on few days the number of learners attended NFE center may be lower or higher than the average i.e. 21. In the present example, it may be noted that on day 2 and 3, 22 learners attended while on day 6, 23 learners attended the center. On the other hand, on day 4, only 18 learners attended the NFE center. Average attendance of 21 is representative in nature and it is the average attendance of all the days for which attendance data is available.

In view of the nature of the programme, average attendance can be calculated daily, monthly, quarterly, bi-annually or yearly. Let us take another example of calculating average but in in a different way.

Example 2: Age of learners in an NFE center is given along with number of learners of a particular age:

Age in Years (X) |
10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | Total |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Number of Learners (Y) | 4 | 8 | 12 | 50 | 15 | 6 | 5 | 100 |

X x Y | 40 | 88 | 144 | 650 | 210 | 90 | 80 | 1302 |

The task given is to compute the average age of learners in an NFE center. This can be obtained in the following way: First, number of learners of an age is multiplied by that age. This is to be repeated for all the given observations. This has been presented alongwith the data (X x Y). All these observations are then added, this comes out to be 1,302. This number is then divided by the total number of learners of all ages i.e. 100. Thus the average age of learners in an NFE center comes out to be

13003/100 = 13.02;

this indicates that average age of learners in that NFE center is 13.02 years. As has been indicated from the given data that a few learners are above and below the average i.e. 13.02 years. The average age calculated is representative in nature as it is calculated by using the age data of all the learners.

The average can also be worked out to know the size of an NFE center. This is illustrated below:

Example 3: Let us suppose that number of NFE centers distributed according to size of NFE centers is given as below:

Size of NFE Centre | 0-10 | 10-20 | 20-30 | 30-40 | 40-50 |

Number of (X) | 20 | 50 | 70 | 60 | 40 |

Mid-points (Y) | 5 | 15 | 25 | 35 | 45 |

X x Y | 100 | 750 | 1750 | 2100 | 1800 |

The task given is to calculate the average size of the NFE centre. This can be worked out by calculating the mid-points in case of each size of NFE centre i.e. 0-10, 10-20, 20-30 etc. Thus the mid-points obtained would be 5, 15, 25, 35 and 45. These mid-points are then multiplied by the corresponding number of NFE centres. Thus total of 20×5, 50×15, 70×25, 60×35 and 40×45 will give 6,500, which is then divided by the total number of NFE centres i.e. 240. The average size of NFE centre is obtained by dividing 6,500 to 240 i.e. 27.08. Thus, the average size of an NFE centre comes out to be 27.08. This indicates that on an average there are about 27 learners per centre. Few NFE centres may have below or above the average number of learners. This can be calculated for different types of NFE programmes and also by type of NFE providers.

Based upon the NFE providers and nature of NFE programmes they offer and the clientele for which a programme is initiated, the averages presented above can be worked out and analyzed.

‘Rate’ indicates percentage change in the variables over two different periods of time. It shows the growth or decline in a variable. Rate is always computed between two given points of time even though information is available at more than two points of time. Rate can either be computed on simple or compound basis.

For example, number of NFE programmes offered by a provider is available for the years, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004. In order to know the progress made in terms of number of programmes, growth is calculated. Growth is always calculated between two points of time. Growth is either in the absolute or percentage form. For example, the number of programmes offered in 1999 was 208 and that of 2004 is 412. Then, the growth is simply the difference of programmes offered between 1999 and 2004 i.e. 412 – 208 = 204. It reveals that number of programmes offered by a NFE provider is increased by 204 programmes between 1999 and 2004. Growth can either be negative or positive which depends upon the values of the variable at two points of time. Many a times, growth is also calculated to know the percentage change occurred between two points of time. This is known as Annual Rate of Growth. By taking examples, this has been explained below.

Let us suppose that an NFE programme caters the need of 15-35 year population. The objective is to know at what rate the population in that age group (15-35 year) has increased, this can be known both in the absolute and percentage term. Once the rate at which the population at two previous years is known, the same can also be used in knowing the clientele population in future. The computation of rate at which clientele population is increasing and the use of the same in knowing the clientele in future may be useful for the NFE providers for taking stock of the situation in relation to the objectives of the NFE programmes and also in initiating similar programme in future.

For computing the Annual Rate of Growth (Simple), the following formula can be applied to the information at any two points of time.

(1)

where

r = annual rate of growth

Pn = population in the current year

Po = population in the base year

n = number of intermediary years.

Let population of age group 15-35 year in a village is given as 846 in the year 1991 (Po), as against 1,027 in the year 2001 (Pn), then decadal rate of growth would be,

[1027 – 846]

= x 100

[646]

= 21.39 per cent gives the decadal rate of growth which has taken place between the two given years, 1991 to 2001. The annual rate of growth can be simply obtained by dividing the decadal rate of growth by ‘n’ (in the present case ‘n’ = 10); thus 2.14 per cent is the annual rate of increase. By assuming that this rate of growth (r = 2.14 per cent) would continue in future, population figures can be obtained in any given year. Thus, in this method, the net increment between two years is obtained by applying ‘r’ to the base year population, which means the increment remains constant irrespective of the year, and, hence, considered as a crude method of projection.

A slightly improved method is the compound rate of growth method, which can be computed with the help of the following formula.

R = [(Pn / Po) 1/n – 1] x 100 (2)

By the formula

Pn = Po (1+R/100)n (3)

population in any requisite year can be projected. The value of the expression can be obtained with the help of a scientific calculator by using the function [Yx] or [XY].

R = [(1027/846) (1/10) – 1] x 100

= [(1.2139)0.10 – 1] x 100

= [1.0196 – 1] x 100

= 1.96%.

Thus, during the period 1991 to 2001, population increased at the rate of 1.96 per cent per annum. This rate can now be applied to know the population figures in any given year. For example, population in the year 2011 would be,

P2011 = P2001 x (1 + R/100)n

= 1027 x (1 + .0196)10

= 1027 x 1.2142

= 1247.

‘Ratio’ shows the relationship between two variables at any particular period of time. Let us suppose that there are 40,240 illiterates of age group 15-35 years and the total population of 15-35 years is 56,920. Then, the ratio is calculated as following:

40,240

Ratio = = 0.7069;

56,920

this shows that the ratio of illiterates to total population of age group 15-35 years population is 0.71. This otherwise means that for every 100 persons of 15-35 year population, there are at least 71 illiterates of that age group. Rates and ratios are interchangeable and normally expressed as percentages for easy interpretation. On the other hand percentage is defined as follows:

‘Percentage’ is the mathematical relationship between two variables multiplied by 100. It is the most commonly used indicator. In the above example, if the ratio 0.71 is multiplied by 100 would give us 71 per cent. This indicates that 71 per cent of 15-35 year population is illiterate. This otherwise also indicates that only 29 per cent population of age group 15-35 years is literates.

Keeping in view the objectives of an NFE programme, percentages can be worked out. For example, if the focus of an NFE programme is on women, then percentage of female illiterates to total illiterates can be worked out. It would indicate percentage of female illiterates to the total illiterates. To see whether, the objectives of a NFE programme is being realized or not, percentage can also be worked out over a period of time. For example, it will indicate that percentage of female literates to total literates over time is increased or not. Similarly if calculated for number of illiterates would indicate increase or decline in female illiterates.

‘Index numbers’ are calculated to review the progress in relation to a particular point of time. Index numbers are presented in the percentage form, which compares changes in a variable at a particular period of time with similar data at some other points of time. With the help of index number, the growth of a NFE programme can be reviewed. This is explained below with the help of an example.

Example: An NFE provider is working in the area of adult literacy programme and has a large number of learning centres. The total number of centres run by that provider is available for last 5 year that is presented below:

Year | 1999 | 2000 | 2001 | 2002 | 2003 |

Number of NFE Centres | 254 | 365 | 487 | 500 | 612 |

Index Number | 100 | 143.7 | 191.7 | 196.9 | 240.9 |

If the objective is to review the growth of NFE centres, it can be known by using the index numbers. Index numbers are always calculated in relation to the base year figure i.e. 254. The number of NFE centres in the subsequent years is divided by the NFE centres in the base year and then it is multiplied by 100. In the first year, the index number calculated would always be 100. In subsequent years, it can be calculated as follows:

Year 2000 = (365/254)*100 = 143.7

Year 2001 = (487/254)*100 = 191.7

Year 2002 = (500/254)*100 = 196.9

Year 2003 = (612/254)*100 = 240.9

This is interpreted as following. In the first year 1999, the index number calculated comes out to 100 and in subsequent years, 143.7, 191.7, 196.9 and 240.9. This means that during 1999 and 2000, the index number has increased from 100 to 143.7 thus meaning an increase in number of NFE centres by 1.43 times. Similarly, the number of NFE centres in 2001 compared to centres in the base year 1999, has increased by 1.91 times. In the following years the increase was 1.97 and 2.41 times compared to NFE centres in the base year 1999. By following this methodology, index numbers can be computed and used in analyzing progress made in an NFE centre on its different aspects. For example, if the objective is to analyze the number of NFE learners of a particular age group over a period of time, this can be known by computing index numbers. To know participation of girls in an NFE programme over time can also be analyzed by using the index numbers. Thus, keeping in view the requirements and the nature and objectives of an NFE programme, index number can be used.

**Types of Indicators**

Indicators can be developed in a variety of ways. The most common form of indicators is the representative indicator. It involves selection of a single variable to reflect some aspect of a non formal education programme. However, it does not provide any justification for selecting one variable rather than other. Therefore, choosing one variable to act as an indicator for non formal education system is an impossible task and the most unsatisfactory one also. That is why some indicators are disaggregated in nature. Instead of only one variable to represent a concept, this type of indicator requires definitions of variables for every element or component of the NFE programme, which is confusing and difficult to manage. The other variety of indicators is composite indicator that combines a number of variables. The final composite indicator is interpreted as average of all variables.

As has been mentioned, like formal education system, the indicators of NFE can also be divided into indicators of input, process, output, equity, efficiency and outcome indicators. However, the classification in case of NFE programmes is neither clear nor simple. Generally, we view education as a system, which receives inputs in the form of new entrants, transforms these inputs through certain internal processes, and finally yields certain outputs in the form of outcomes i.e. completers/graduates. These indicators are expected to tell about the performance of NFE programmes at any given time. They can also be used to monitor the progress of the programme over a period of time and can be helpful in identifying major strengths and weaknesses in the implementation of the programme.

**Core Group of Indicators**

Based upon the discussions presented above, a core group of suggestive list of NFE indicators is presented below. Keeping in view the nature of NFE programmes, the indicators can be computed according to NFE providers, target groups, age group and also according to NFE programmes. Many of these indicators can also be computed separately for male and female population and also by caste. Keeping in view the level at which an NFE programme is initiated, the indicators can also be worked out at different levels, such as, CLC/village, cluster, community, block, district, state and national levels.

Indicators are briefly discussed below in terms of its definition, data requirements for computing indicator, availability time lag, method of calculation, interpretation and limitations. Needless to mention that all these indicators are not applicable to all the NFE programmes and providers but should be computed in view of the objectives of a NFE programme. Data collected through the NFE-MIS will form the basis of indicator development.

**Core List of Suggestive NFE Indicators***

**Access**

- Percentage of (rural) villages served by CLCs
- Percentage of tribal villages served by CLCs
- Percentage of urban slums served by CLCs
- Percentage of households below poverty line
- Percentage of out of school children of age group 6-11/11-14/6-14 years
- Percentage of illiterates/semi-literates (15-35/15+ years) enrolled in NFE centers to total illiterates (15-35/15+ years) population (by sex and by caste)
- Percentage of population participated in the Gram Sabha to total village population
- Percentage of literate population: Adult Literacy Rate (15-35/35+ year)
- Percentage of villages having health facility for all
- Percentage of villages having safe drinking water
- Percentage of villages having irrigation facility

Input Indicators

- Percentage of facilitators/educators according to academic qualifications
- Percentage of untrained facilitators/educators to total facilitators/educators
- Percentage of outside facilitators/educators in NFE centres to total facilitators/educators
- Percentage of female facilitators/educators to total facilitators/educators
- Facilitators/educators: Learner ratio

Infrastructure Indicators

- Percentage of CEC’s having pucca (permanent) buildings to total number of CEC’s having buildings
- Percentage of CEC’s having own buildings to total number of CEC’s having buildings
- Percentage of CEC’s having libraries to total number of CEC’s

Output Indicators

- Percentage of completers in an NFE programme to total enrolled in an NFE programme: by male/female/caste-wise/programme-wise/provider-wise
- Percentage of adults of age group 15-34/35-50/60+ years who completed the course to total illiterate population enrolled of that age group: by male/female/provider/programme
- Percentage learners awarded certificates/diplomas to total number of learners registered

* Inputs received from Dr. R. S. Thakur is gratefully acknowledged.

Once the above indicators are computed successfully and used in planning and monitoring of NFE programmes, the list of Core Indicators will be expanded to cover more such indicators. The success of developing and using indicators framework for NFE programmes would largely depends upon the outcome of the NFE-MIS being developed, its frequency of information collection and utilization in planning and monitoring of NFE programmes.

The indicators definition, limitations, data requirements, availability of time lag, interpretation in case of each indicator is present below.

**ACCESS INDICATORS**

**Indicator 1: Percentage of (rural) villages served by CLCs (Continuing Literacy Centres**

**Definition**

Villages having Continuing Literacy Centres are divided by total number of villages are multiplied by 100 to obtain percentage of rural villages served by CLCs.

**Unit of Measurement**

Percentage of rural villages served by CLCs.

**Data Requirements
**Total number of rural villages in the sampled area/block/district/state and the number of those who are having CLC

**Typical Availability Time Lag
**Will depend on the frequency of data collected under NFE programme.

**Method of calculation
**Number of villages having CLC in the sampled area/block/district/state is divided by total number of villages at that level is multiply by 100.

**Discussion**

The indicator computed will help in knowing availability of CLCs in villages. If subtracted from 100 will give percentage of villages not having CLCs. The indicator can be computed at different levels. It can be used in planning CLCs

**Limitations
**The information required to compute indicator may not be available in ready to use form and the computation will largely depends upon information collected through NFE-MIS. The indicator presents information about the availability of CLC in a village but fails to present any information about the CLC activities and its learners.

**Indicator 2: Percentage of tribal villages served by CLCs (Continuing Literacy Centres)**

**Definition**

Tribal villages having Continuing Literacy Centres are divided by total number of tribal villages are multiplied by 100 to obtain percentage of tribal villages served by CLCs.

**Unit of Measurement**

Percentage of tribal villages served by CLCs.

**Data Requirements
**Total number of tribal villages in the sampled area/block/district/state and the number of those tribal villages where these CLCs are available in that area.

**Typical Availability Time Lag
**Will depend on the frequency of data collected under an NFE programme.

**Method of Calculation**

Tribal villages having CLCs in the sampled area/block/district/state is divided by total number of tribal villages which is then multiply by 100.

**Discussion**

The indicator computed will help in knowing availability of CLCs in tribal villages. If subtracted from 100 will give percentage of tribal villages not having CLCs. The indicator can be computed at different levels. It can be used in planning CLCs in tribal dominated areas.

**Limitations
**The information required to compute indicator may not be available in ready to use form and the computation will largely depends upon information collected through the NFE-MIS. The indicator presents information about the availability of CLC in a tribal village but fails to present any information about the CLC activities and its learners.

**Indicator 3: Percentage of urban slums served by CLCs (Continuing Literacy Centres)**

**Definition**

Sums in urban areas having Continuing Literacy Centres are divided by total number of slums in urban areas are multiplied by 100 to obtain percentage of tribal villages served by CLCs.

**Unit of Measurement**

Percentage of slums in urban areas served by CLCs.

**Data Requirements
**The total number of urban slums having CLCs and the total number of urban slums in the sampled area/block/district/state etc.

**Typical Availability Time Lag**

Will depend on the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.

**Method of calculation**

Find out the number of urban slums where CLCs are available in the sampled area block/district/state and also find out total number of urban slums in the same area. Divide the number of urban slums having CLCs by the total number of urban slums in the same area and then multiply by 100.

**Discussion**

The indicator computed will help in knowing availability of CLCs in urban slums. If subtracted from 100 will give percentage of slums not having CLCs. The indicator can be computed at different levels. It can be used in planning CLCs in tribal dominated areas.

**Limitations
**The information required to compute indicator may not be available in ready to use form and the computation will largely depends upon information collected through the NFE-MIS. The indicator presents information about the availability of CLC in urban slums but fails to present any information about the CLC activities and its learners.

**Indicator 4: Percentage of households below the poverty line**

**Definition**

Number of households below poverty line in an area is divided by the total number of households in the same area is multiplied by 100 to obtain percentage of households below the poverty line. The poverty line is decided on the basis of some criterion, which is approved by the Government on the basis of certain norms. Those households which fall below this criterion are treated as below the poverty line.

**Unit of Measurement**

Percentage of households below the poverty line.

**Data Requirements**

Total number of households below poverty line in an area and total number of households in the village/sampled area/block/district/state etc.

**Typical Availability Time Lag**

Household surveys are expensive and time-consuming therefore these are conducted sparingly.

**Method of calculation**

Number of households below poverty line in an area is divided by the total number of households in the same area is multiplied by 100.

**Discussion**

The indicator computed will help in knowing economic condition of households in relation to total number of households. If subtracted from 100 will give percentage of households above the poverty line. Keeping in view the requirements, the indicator can be computed at different levels. It can be used in planning for employment and income generation related programmes.

**Limitations
**The information required to compute indicator is not available in ready to use form and the computation largely depends upon information collected through the NFE-MIS. It is difficult to obtain correct information from the households about their earning. Correct use of definition of poverty line is also challenging one. Investigators collecting information may not be familiar with the definition of poverty line. The information, even if available from the Government sources may not be available at regular intervals.

**Indicator 5: Percentage of out of school children of age group 6-11/11-14/6-14 years**

**Definition**

Percentage of children of a specific age group not currently enrolled including the drop out and never enrolled children to total population of that age group.

**Unit of Measurement**

Percentage of out-of-school children to total population of that age group.

**Data Requirements
**Total number of out of school children in the age-group 6-11/11-14/6-14 and total child population of that age group 6-11/11-14/6-14/6-14. This is required at different levels.

**Discussion**

The information on out-of-school children is perhaps the most crucial information that is required for developing educational plans at different levels. But the same from the regular sources is not readily available. Household surveys conducted in the recent past can also be explored for this purpose. If analyzed separately for boys and girls will help in initiating programmes for out-of-school children.

This indicator is very important for the educational planners. If the data on out of school is available village and other levels, then the same can be used in formulating plans both under formal and non-formal education sectors. The indicator also reflects on the efforts that are being made towards achieving goal of universal elementary education.

**Typical Availability Time Lag**

There is no regular source of information on out of school children. It is being collected through the household surveys frequency of which vary from state to state.

**Method of Calculation**

Number of out of school children in an age group is divided by total number of children of that age group is then multiplied by 100.

**Limitations**

Information on out of school is available on only from the Census sources once in ten year. Even Census estimates are not available immediately. Sample surveys conducted by the National Sample Survey Organization do not disseminate information at micro levels. Thus obtaining reliable information will be challenging one.

**Indicator 6: Percentage of population participated in Gram Sabha to total village population**

**Definition**

Percentage of village population participated in Gram Sabha to the total population of that village. Every village has a Gram Sabha (village level elected body). Some of the villagers participate in the activities of the Gram Sabha while others do not participate. The indicator can be calculated separately for male and female population.

**Unit of Measurement:**

Percentage form.

**Data Requirements
**Number of persons in a village participates in Gram Sabha activities and total population of that village.

**Typical Availability Time Lag**

The indicator is required at the village level and is generally available from the Gram Sabha registers.

**Method of Calculation**

The number of Gram Sabha members in a village participate in Gram Sabha activities is divided by the total members of the Gram Sabha is then multiply by 100.

**Discussion
**This indicator is very important for lower level functionaries like school teachers, CLC workers to elicit help from the villagers. If larger number of persons takes part in the activities of the Gram Sabha, educational problems of the village can be easily discussed and strategies formed. The participants can look after the welfare of CLCs and schools not only in physical and financial terms but also in bringing and retaining children in schools or in non-formal CLCs. Most of the campaigns fail because villagers do not participate in Gram Sabhas. This indicator can be calculated separately for male and female population.

**Limitations
**A few villages do not maintain Gram Sabha registers. Mere participation in Gram Sabha may not ensure solution of local problems.

**Indicator 7: Percentage of illiterates/semi-literates (15-35/15+ years) enrolled in NFE centers to total illiterates (15-35/15+ years) population (by sex and by caste)**

**Definition**

The number of illiterate/semi-literate population (15-35/15+ years) enrolled in NFE centers when expressed as a percentage to total population in that age-group (15-35/15+ years) gives this indicator. The indicator can be calculated separately for male and female population and also by caste. Keeping in view the objectives of a NFE programme and clientele to which cater, the indicator can be calculated either for 15-35 or 15+ population and also at different levels, such as, CLC/village, cluster, block, district, state or national level.

**Unit of Measurement
**Percentage form.

**Data Requirements
**Number illiterates/semi literates in the age groups of 15-35 and 15+ population.

**Typical Availability Time Lag
**Depends on the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.

**Method of Calculation
**Number of illiterate/semi-literate persons(15-35/15+ years) enrolled in NFE centres in the sampled area/block/district /state is divided by the total number of illiterate population (15-35/15+years) in the same area is multiplied by 100.

**Discussion
**It helps NFE providers/administrators to plan for more adult literacy centres for these age groups where ever necessary. The indicator gives an idea about the percentage of illiterates/semi-literate persons (15-35/15+years) enrolled in NFE centers. If subtracted from 100, it gives percentage of such persons yet to be covered under such NFE programmes.

**Limitations
**Latest information may not be available. Largely, it depends on frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.

**Indicator 8: Adult Literacy Rate: 15-35 and 15+ Population**

**Definition
**A literate is a person who can both read and write with understanding a simple statement of daily life. The term literacy also embraces numeracy and the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations.

The literate population (in 15+ years/15-35 years) is expressed as a percentage to total population in the respective age-group. Literacy represents a potential for the individual’s further intellectual growth and enhanced contribution to socio-economic and cultural development of society. The indicator can be calculated at different levels and also according to NFE providers and type of an NFE programme.

**Unit of Measurement
**In percentage form.

**Data Requirements
**Number of literates of age group 15-35 and 15+ years and total population of that age group at different levels.

**Typical Availability Time Lag
**The data is available only through decennial Census operations.

**Method of Calculation
**Number of adult illiterates of an age-group in the sampled area/block/district/state is divided by the total population of that age-group in the same area is multiplied by 100.

**Discussion
**The indicator gives an idea about the literacy status of population in a block/district/state. The indicator helps the NFE providers in taking corrective measures to improve the literacy status of population either through the formal or non-formal education programmes. If calculated for different geographical areas may help in comparing the educational backwardness (in terms of literacy) of an area compared to other areas and also in finding out the reasons of low literacy.

**Limitations
**The data is collected once in 10 year through the decennial censuses. For intervening years, data on literacy is not available and hence, it computation largely depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.

**Indicator 9: Percentage of villages having health facility for all**

**Definition
**The number of villages having health facilities is expressed as percentage of total villages. The indicator throws light on the availability of health facilities in the villages.

**Unit of Measurement
**In percentage form.

**Data Requirements
**Number of villages having health facilities and also the total number of villages.

**Typical Availability Time Lag
**Largely depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.

**Method of Calculation
**The number of villages having health facilities in the sampled area/block/district/state are divided by the total number of villages in the same area is multiplied by 100.

**Discussion
**This indicator reflects on social service programmes run by Government for the welfare of its people. It is assumed that with better health facilities, the health of the people will also be better and the nation will progress.

**Limitations
**Indicator is not readily available. Computation largely depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme. It fails to present any idea about type of health facilities available and also its utilization.

**Indicator 10: Percentage of villages having safe drinking water**

**Definition
**Percentage of villages in the sampled area/block/district/state having safe drinking water expressed as percentage to total number of villages in the same area.

**Unit of Measurement**

In percentage form.

**Data Requirements
**Number of village having safe drinking water facility and also total number of villages.

**Typical Availability Time Lag**

Depends on the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme. May also be available from village registers.

**Method of Calculation**

Number villages in the sampled area/block/district /state having safe drinking water is divided by the total number of villages in the same area is multiplied by 100.

**Discussion**

The indicator presents information about one of the important aspects of social services. Safe drinking water has direct bearing on health of the people. If water is not safe to drink, water-borne diseases are certain to surface. The indicator can be computed at different levels and can be used to compare availability of safe drinking water facility.

**Limitations**

Largely, the computation of indicator will depends on the data collection under an NFE programme. However, it fails to provide any information about source of drinking water and also whether the same is equally accessible to the entire population in an area.

**Indicator 11: Percentage of villages having irrigation facility**

**Definition**

Villages in the sampled area/block/district/state having irrigation facilities are expressed as percentage to the total number of villages in the same area.

Irrigation facilities are very essential for the development of agriculture sector. If irrigation facilitates are not available, agriculture sector can’t prosper. This is a very important input in the primary sector of the economy. If the primary sector of the economy is not developed, other sectors of the economy are also not expected to grow.

**Unit of Measurement**

Percentage form.

**Data Requirements**

Number of villages having irrigation facility in an area and also total number of villages in that area.

**Typical Availability Time Lag**

Depends on the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.

**Method of Calculation**

Number of villages having irrigation facilities in the sampled area/block/district/state is divided by the total number villages in the same area is multiplied by 100.

**Discussion**

Agriculture is the primary sector of the economy. For the development of the primary sector, irrigation facilities are very important to ensure that this sector of economy grows significantly. If the primary sector does not grow, the overall economy will also not able to grow. Therefore, irrigation facilities are very important for the growth of the economy. This indicator will give area-wise comparative position of growth and also of the irrigation facilities.

**Limitations**

The information may be available in ready use form at the village level but the same may not be available at one place. The computation of indicator largely depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.

**INPUT INDICATORS**

**Indicator 12: Percentage of facilitators/educators according to academic qualifications: [(a) Below Matriculation; (b) Matriculates; (c) Hr. Secondary; (d) Graduate & Above] to the total facilitators/educators**

**Definition**

Percentage of facilitators according to academic qualifications (below matriculation, matriculates, higher secondary and graduate & above) to the total number of facilitators in the sampled area/block/district/state.

**Unit of Measurement**

Percentage of facilitators distributed (according to academic qualifications) to the total number of facilitators.

**Data Requirements**

Total number of facilitators according to their academic qualifications in the sampled area/block/district/state and total number of facilitators in the same area.

**Typical Availability Time Lag**

It will depend on the collection of data under an NFE programme. For the formal education system, the same is collected once in an academic year.

**Method of Calculation**

Number of facilitators (according to qualifications) in the sampled area/block/district/state is divided by the total number of facilitators in the sampled area/block/district/state is multiplied by 100. The indicator can also be computed separately by type of NFE programme and providers.

**Discussion**

The indicator is qualitative in nature. It is general belief that if the academic qualifications of teachers are higher, the quality of education they impart would also be better. It can be compared between one sampled area to the other; one block to the other and one district or state to the other district or state. The indicator should also be computed sex-wise and also NFE programme and provider-wise.

**Limitations**

The availability of basic data required to compute the indicator is generally collected once in an academic year but the same is not readily available. However, the NFE providers may be collected information periodically frequency of which vary from provider to provider and programme to programme.

**Indicator 13: Percentage of trained facilitators/educators to total facilitators/ educators**

**Definition**

Number of trained facilitators/educators expressed as percentage to the total number of facilitators/educators in the sampled area/block/district/state. If subtracted from 100 will present percentage of untrained facilitators/educators.

**Unit of Measurement**

Percentage of trained facilitators/educators.

**Data Requirements**

Number of facilitators/educators acquired training and total number of facilitators/educators in the sampled area/block/district/state.

**Typical Availability Time Lag**

Depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme. In case of formal education system, the information is being collected annually.

**Method of Calculation**

Number of facilitators having acquired training is divided by the total number of facilitators/educators in the sampled area/block/district/state is multiplied by 100.

**Discussion**

The indicator is termed as qualitative indicator in nature as it reflects upon the type of learning taking place in an NFE centre. The indicator should be calculated separately in case of male and female teachers and at different levels and also by type of NFE programme and type of NFE provider.

**Limitations**

Computation of indicator largely depends upon the basic data which may not be available on regular basis according to NFE programme and providers. Higher is the percentage of trained teachers itself doesn’t guarantee quality learning in NFE centres.

**Indicator 14: Percentage of outside facilitators/educators in NFE centers to total facilitators/educators**

**Definition**

Outside facilitators/educators are expressed as percentage to total facilitators/educators in the sampled area/block/district/state. If computed by NFE programmes will present percentage of local facilitators/educators as well as those who are not staying in the village where the NFE centre is located.

**Unit of Measurement**

Percentage of outside facilitators/educators to total facilitators/educators.

**Data Requirements**

Number of total facilitators/educators and number those who reside outside the village where the NFE centre is located.

**Typical Availability Time lag**

Will depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.

**Method of Calculation**

Number of facilitators/instructors who reside outside the village where the CLC is located is divided by the total number of facilitators/educators in the same area is then multiplied by 100.

**Discussion**

The main purpose of this indicator is to know the percentage of outside facilitators or local facilitators/educators. This otherwise also throw light on the percentage of facilitators/educators who come from outside the CLC area. It is general belief that if the facilitator/educator is not local, he/she may not devote full time to NFE centre as such facilitators take time to reach NFE centre. That is why many of the NFE providers prefer to hire a local person than the outsiders.

**Limitations**

The basic data needed to compute indicator may not be available. Getting updated information will be challenging one.

**Indicator 15: Percentage of female facilitators/educators to total facilitators/educators**

**Definition**

Number of female facilitators/educators expressed as percentage to total number of facilitators/educators in the sampled area/block/district/state. Women are the main vulnerable unit in our society. Therefore, if the number of female facilitators/educators is more, they can draw on the larger number of illiterate/uneducated persons of the society to the learning centres.

**Unit of Measurement**

Percentage of female facilitators to total facilitators/educators.

**Data Requirements**

Number of female instructors/educators and total number of instructors/educators. This is required according to the type of NFE programme and providers and may also require at different levels.

**Typical Availability Time Lag**

Will depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.

**Method of Calculation**

The number of female facilitators/educators in the sampled area/block/district/state is divided by the total number of facilitators/educators in the same area is multiplied by 100. This may need to compute separately by NFE programmes and type of providers.

**Discussion**

Females are the most vulnerable group in our society. If we have some females as facilitators/educators, they can influence women groups and illiterate women to join the non-formal learning centers. This will help a great deal in the spread of literacy and education through the non-formal means.

**Limitations**

The basic data needed to compute indicator may not be available. Getting updated information will be challenging one. However, the same is available in ready to use form in case of formal education system.

**Indicator 16: Facilitators/Educators: Learner’s Ratio**

**Definition**

Average number of learners per facilitator/educator in an NFE centre/programme. The indicator is equivalent to pupil teacher ratio of the formal education system. This indicator is used to measure the level of human resources input, in terms of the number of facilitators/instructors in relation to the learner’s population in an NFE centre/programme.

**Unit of Measurement**

Ratio.

**Data Requirements**

Number of learners and facilitators/instructors in an NFE centre is required by type of NFE programmes and providers and also at different levels.

**Typical Availability Time Lag**

Largely depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.

**Method of Calculation**

Total number of learners in an NFE programme in the sampled area/block/district/state is divided by the total number of facilitators in the same area to obtain the ratio. This may need to compute by type of NFE programme and providers and also at various levels.

**Discussion**

Most of the alternative modes of education also have a norm of the learners per facilitator/instructor. The ratio can be used in optimally utilizing resources in general and facilitators/instructors in general in an NFE programme.

**Limitations**

Obtaining updated information on this indicator will be challenging one. Largely, it depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.

**Indicator 17: Percentage of CEC’s having own buildings to total number of CEC’s having buildings**

**Definition**

Percentage of CEC’s having buildings in relation to total number of CEC’s. Building is essential for smooth transaction of curriculum which is true for both the formal and non-formal education systems.

**Unit of Measurement**

Percentage.

**Data Requirements**

Total number of CEC’s in sampled area/block/district/state and number of CEC’s having buildings in the same area. This is also required according to type of NFE programme and providers.

**Typical Availability Time Lag**

Largely it depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.

**Method of Calculation**

Number of CEC’s having buildings in the sampled area/block/district /state is divided by the total number of CEC’s in that area is multiplied by 100.

**Discussion**

The indicator gives information about percentage of the CEC’s having buildings. This can also be used to know percentage of CEC’s that have no buildings. Such type of CEC’s may have temporary shelters or functioning in rented buildings. If the CEC is functioning in a rented building, it has little scope of remodeling that suits to its requirements.

**Limitations**

Information on CEC’s and whether it having building or not is generally not available. Its collection depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme that varies from a programme to programme. Just having building need not guarantee itself that necessary infrastructure that requires for smooth transaction is required in the CEC. The indicator also fails to provide any information about use of building and also the type of building the CEC is having.

**Indicator 18: Percentage of CEC’s having pucca (permanent) buildings to total number of CEC’s having buildings**

**Definition**

Percentage of CEC’s having pucca (permanent) buildings in relation to total number of CEC’s having buildings. Building is essential for smooth transaction of curriculum which is true for both the formal and non-formal education systems.

**Unit of Measurement**

Percentage.

**Data Requirements**

Total number of CEC’s having buildings in sampled area/block/district/state and total number of CEC’s having pucca (permanent) buildings in the same area. This is also required according to type of NFE programme and providers.

**Typical Availability Time Lag**

Largely it depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.

**Method of Calculation**

Number of CEC’s having pucca (permanent) buildings in the sampled area/block/district /state is divided by the total number of CEC’s with buildings in that area is multiplied by 100.

**Discussion**

Most of the CEC’s have provision of libraries with reading room facility but it is not essential that all the CEC’s have buildings and that too pucca (permanent) buildings. It is essential that the CEC has a pucca (permanent) building for the safe custody of materials (like books, furniture, teaching aids and equipment). In the absence of pucca building, it is not possible to provide safe custody of all such materials. Even the learning classes can’t be held in an open space in rainy reason if the CEC building is not permanent in nature.

**Limitations**

Information on CEC’s and whether it having building or not is generally not available. Its collection depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme that varies from a programme to programme. Just having building need not guarantee itself that necessary infrastructure that requires for smooth transaction is required in the CEC. The indicator also fails to provide any information about use of CEC building.

**Indicator 19: Percentage of CEC’s having libraries to total number of CEC’s**

**Definition**

Library provides an important input in the non-formal education programmes. Through this indicator, percentage of CEC’s having libraries are known. A CEC with a good library and reading room facility becomes a good place for gathering and learning from each other. In such a place an opportunity is also provided to learn from the experiences of others. People learn a lot from each other and utilize their free time in constructive activities.

**Unit of Measurement**

Percentage of CEC’s having libraries.

**Data Requirements**

Number of CEC’s having libraries in sampled area/block/district/state and total number of CEC’s in the same area. This is also required according to type of NFE programme and providers.

**Typical Availability Time Lag**

Largely it depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.

**Method of Calculation**

Number of CEC’s having libraries in the sampled area/block/district /state is divided by the total number of CEC’s in that area is multiplied by 100.

**Discussion**

Library is an important aspect of CEC around which its activities should center around. It provides a place for the villagers (younger & older) to come and take advantage of reading room during their leisure time. Library is treated as the focal point in a village where people read papers, discuss politics & learn from each other. They also provide neo-literates and learners in post literacy centres an opportunity to access books and other reading material of their choice.

**Limitations**

Information on CEC’s and whether it having library or not is generally not available. Its collection depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme that varies from a programme to programme. Just having library need not guarantee itself that it has necessary infrastructure. The indicator also fails to provide any information about use of CEC library and type of material it has.

**OUTPUT INDICATORS**

**Indicator 20: Percentage of completers in an NFE programme to total enrolled in that programme**

**Definition**

A few NFE programmes are result oriented. Like formal education system, learners in NFE programmes are often expected to complete a level. The indicator may not be applicable to all the NFE programmes. Therefore, the indicator should be computed only in case of NFE programmes that expect learners to complete a particular level.

Percentage of completers in an NFE programme is expressed as a percentage of the total learners in that programme. The indicator if computed by male/female/caste-wise/programme-wise/provider-wise will be of more use.

**Unit of Measurement**

Percentage of completers.

**Data Requirements**

Number of completers and total enrolment (learners) in an NFE programme. In view of the objectives of NFE programmes, the information will also be required by type of NFE programme and providers and also at different levels.

**Typical Availability Time Lag**

Largely it depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.

**Method of Calculation**

Number of learners those who have completed a NFE programme is divided by the total learners in the same NFE programme is multiplied by 100. The indicator can also be constructed centre-wise and NFE programme and provider-wise.

**Discussion**

Learners those who join NFE programmes either complete the programme or do not complete it. Those who complete it are termed as completers of that programme. Completion is either decided on the basis of learner’s attendance or by holding a test at the end of the programme. After completion of a programme, the recipients/learners are expected to utilize the knowledge acquired in his/her daily life. The indicator, if computed by sex, cast¸ programme and provider will throw light on effectiveness of an NFE programme and provider.

**Limitations**

The indicator may not be applicable to all the NFE programmes. Getting information on number of completers will be challenging one. The indicator takes note of only completers and is silent about the quality of outcomes and use of knowledge gained in day to day life.

**Indicator 21: Percentage of adults of age-group 15-34/35-60/60+year who completed the course to total illiterate population of that age group**

**Definition**

The illiterates of different age groups (15-34/35-60/60+year) who completed NFE course is expressed as percentage of the total illiterate population in that age-group. The indicator, if computed by sex and programme will be more useful in knowing the literacy status of population in different age groups. The indicator also gives idea about how many illiterate persons are yet to be made literate.

**Unit of Measurement**

Percentage of adult illiterate persons completed NFE course.

**Data Requirements**

Number of illiterates of different age groups completed NFE programme and total number of illiterates of the same age group enrolled. Keeping in view the objectives of the programme, the same may be required sex, programme and provider-wise.

**Typical Availability Time Lag**

Largely it depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.

**Method of Calculation**

Number of adults of an age-group in the sampled area//block/district/state who completed NFE course is divided by the total illiterate population of that age-group is divided by 100.

**Discussion**

Learners those who join NFE programmes either complete the programme or do not complete it. Those who complete it are termed as completers of that programme. After completion of a course, the learners are expected to utilize the knowledge acquired in his/her daily life. The indicator, if computed by sex, cast¸ programme and provider will throw more light on effectiveness of an NFE programme and provider.

**Limitations**

The indicator may not be applicable to all the NFE programmes. Getting information on number of completers will be challenging one. The indicator takes note of only completers and is silent about the quality of outcomes and use of knowledge gained in day to day life.

**Indicator 22: Percentage of learners awarded certificate/diploma to total number of learners registered**

**Definition**

In some courses, certificate/diplomas are awarded to the completers either on the basis of attendance or on the basis of a test conducted at the end of the programme. In such cases, number of learners who get certificates/diplomas in a course are expressed as a percentage to the total learners registered. But in some courses it is also possible that no certificate/diploma is awarded. Instead, only attendance chit is issued. Such cases are not considered in this indicator.

**Unit of Measurement**

Percentage of learners awarded certificate/diploma.

**Data Requirements**

Number of learners awarded certificate/diploma in an NFE programme and total number of learners registered in that NFE programme.

**Typical Availability Time Lag**

Largely it depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.

**Method of Calculation**

Number of learners who are awarded certificates/diplomas in the sampled area/block/district/state is divided by the total number of learners who were registered for that course in the same area is divided by 100.

**Discussion**

A few NFE programmes/providers/agencies award certificates/diplomas on the basis of either attendance or test conducted at the end of the course. On the other hand, there are some courses where no certificate/diploma is awarded to the learners. The indicator gives an idea about the percentage of learners awarded certificate/diploma which is equivalent to some grade of the formal education system. If some sort of inter-linkages between the non-formal education and formal education is established, it will go a long way in improving the quality of the NFE programmes.

**Limitations**

Computation of indicator depends on the availability of data under an NFE programme.