Indicators Concerning to Access, Enrolment and Retention with Focus on Upper Primary Education
ARUN C MEHTA
NIEPA, 17-B, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi – 110016 (INDIA)
The DPEP has generated demand for upper primary to expand. Therefore, it is proposed that it will be expanded to upper primary level of education. For monitoring the programme, a set of indicators is required. In the light of this presented below a set of general indicators concerning to access, enrolment and retention. Needless to mention that the list presented is not exclusively one and more indicators can be added to it keeping in view the situation at different levels which will make it local specific. The list will also be modified once the design of upper primary education under DPEP phase one districts are finalized. In addition, to monitor the progress of programme with particular reference to financing, mobilization and cost effectiveness, Project Monitoring Information System would also need to be developed. There should be complete correlation between the EMIS and the PMIS without which neither the programme will be implemented efficiently nor effective monitoring will take place. It may also be noted that information on many of these indicators are not readily available. Many of the indicators listed above may even not be available at all. The present list of indicators is prepared keeping in view the monitoring aspect in mind and not whether the data is available or not. The existing information system under the DPEP will need to be expanded to upper primary level. The list of indicators should be finalized in consultation with the manager MIS at the national level.
- Total number of habitations
- Number (or percentage) of habitations having Primary and Upper primary schooling facilities within a distance of 1 and 3 km. This should be viewed in relation to the state norms concerning distance and population size of the habitation.
- Number of unserved habitations over a period of time both with regard to availability of primary and upper primary schooling facilities and also the non-formal education centres, EGS and other type of alternative schooling facilities. (Percentage of unserved habitations to total number of habitations in the district/block).
- While monitoring the progress on access, one should first see the targets, which are set on this aspect. The number of new schools proposed in the plan should also be kept in mind, which should be linked, to actual number of schools/centres opened. (Percentage of new schools/centres opened with total number of schools/centres proposed in the plan).
- Percentage of rural population served by primary and upper primary schooling facilities as per the state norms.
- Trends in number of schools, primary and upper primary over a period of time both at the district and block/mandal/tehsil/taluka levels.
- Number and percentage of school buildings proposed, undertaken and actually constructed
- Number and percentage of additional classrooms proposed and constructed
- Number of renovations (of school buildings) proposed and actually undertaken
- Percentage of expenditure incurred on account of civil works (specifically buildings, additional rooms, renovations etc.) to total expenditure incurred at district level
- Distribution of out of school children (boys/girls/SC/ST/OBC/child labour/migratory population, disable children) at the habitation/village/block/district levels and its percentage to total number of children in an age group. This should be calculated separately in different age groups, like 6-11, 9-14,11-14, 6-14 etc. Similarly, out of school children according to single age population over time should also be viewed.
- Trends in age-specific population in different age groups separately at block and district levels for the focus groups mentioned above
- Total enrolment at primary and upper primary levels of education, separately at block and district level
- Grade wise enrolment, specially Grade I over a period of time, separately for boys/girls/SC/ST and OBC children
- Entry rate, separately for boys and girls both at block and district level
- GER and NER at block and district levels separately for different focus groups, such as, girls. SC, ST and OBC children. This should be viewed in relation to the targets that are set out on this aspect.
- Average attendance rates both at the primary and upper primary levels of education separately for boys/girls, SC, ST and OBC children.
- Number of primary school graduates over a period of time
- Percentage of amount spent on enrolment drives with that of proposed budget on this aspect
- Retention rates both at the primary and upper primary level of education, separately for boys and girls and also at block and district levels. This should be viewed in relation to the targets set on this aspect.
- Grade-to-grade promotion, drop out and repetition rates, separately for boys and girls (along with number of repeaters and drop outs in different grades).
- Block and District specific graduation (completion) rates at the primary level, separately for boys and girls.
- Transition rates from primary to upper primary and from upper primary to secondary levels of education, separately for boys and girls.
- Percentage of amount incurred on retention related activities (innovative projects etc.) to total expenditure. See whether the research studies proposed are undertaken/completed and results are used in setting out the priorities and forming strategies.