NonFormal Education Programmes: A Suggestive
Framework of NFE Indicators
ARUN C MEHTA
Fellow, NIEPA, New Delhi – 110016 (INDIA)
Background
Free and compulsory elementary education is
constitutional commitment and is a fundamental right in India. Though the
Government is the main provider of elementary education but a large number of
private and voluntary agencies are also involved in providing school
education. Impressive progress has been made in all spheres of elementary
education but despite spectacular quantitative expansion of educational
facilities, the goal of universal elementary education is still a far distant
dream. It is because of the continuous efforts, enrolment at all levels of
education increased many fold ever since the adoption of the Constitution in
1950. In the recent past, Government of India initiated a number of programmes
most of which have been initiated during the last decade. Except in case of a
few programmes, activities were focused around the primary level of education.
The new Government initiative, namely the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
(Education for All) expanded the coverage not only to the entire elementary
level of education but to all the districts of the country.
Despite all around improvement in school education,
there is a significant number of out of school, never enrolled and dropped out
children. Still, a number of habitations do not have access to primary and
upper primary schooling facilities. In view of large number of out of school
children and unserved habitations, concerted efforts have been made across
the county in the form of nonformal education that has been recently renamed
as the Education Guarantee Scheme and Alternative & Innovative Education
(EGS & AIE).
Type of NFE Programmes
The
first important information that is required to build indicators framework is
to know about the type of NFE programmes being offered and also the major
providers. Apart from education sector, NFE programmes are also being offered
by the other sectors of economy but information about these programmes are not
fully known. Even all types of NFE providers and programmes within the
education sector are not properly documented. UNESCO, Paris has recently
initiated efforts to develop NFEMIS and in this direction, pilot studies have
been conducted in the districts of Hyderabad and Indore. The outcome of these
studies revealed that there are a vast variety of NFE programmes that are
being offered within and outside education sector. Governmental as well as
nongovernmental agencies are the providers of these programmes.
Before,
a framework for NFE indicators is developed, it is necessary to know in detail
type of NFE programmes being offered and also the providers. In this regard,
information on the following aspects of NFE programmes is crucial:
·
Type of programmes: Detailed list and characteristics of
programmes offered at different levels distributed by nature of programme (like
ECCE, literacy, out of school children, continuing education etc.), location,
outputs, objectives, contents, teaching/learning methods, educators and
learners.
·
Providers/Agency: Providers distributed by type of
programmes at different levels and by location. The providers may either be
government or nongovernmental agencies. Nongovernmental agencies can further
be divided into aided, unaided, voluntary and missionary management; and
·
Providers/Agencies that offer programmes for special
target/clientele/focus groups by location.
The information on the above aspects has already been
collected in the two pilot districts mentioned above. In view of which, all
the NFE programmes can be grouped under the following headings:
·
Literacy programmes
·
Schooling for outofschool
children
·
Life skill training
·
Rural development
·
Income generation training
·
Nonformal higher education
·
Religious education; and
·
Leisure education
Target/Focus Groups
Further, the pilot
studies revealed that NFE programmes that are being offered are targeted to a
specific group(s) for which specific programmes have been designed and
implemented. By and large, the ongoing NFE programmes are targeted to the
following focus/target groups:
·
Illiterates
·
Neoliterates
·
Outofschool children/youths
·
Women and girls
·
Rural poor
·
Urban poor; and
·
Ethnic/linguistic minority
groups.
The NFE providers have
initiated programmes for the above mentioned target groups but within these
groups they concentrate on different age groups. These age groups vary from
NFE provider to provider.
Clientele Age Groups
Perhaps
the most crucial information that is required for planning and monitoring of
NFE programmes is the clientele population. Most of the monitoring indicators
can be worked out, if the clientele population for which NFE programmes are
initiated is known. In the absence of which, it would rather difficult to
estimate need, demand, and participation at different levels. Not only the
present information is required but future information is also required to
enable reliable planning for NFE programmes.
In view
of the type and objectives of NFE programmes, information on clientele
population is required at community (village/habitation), cluster, block,
district, state and national levels. In most of the cases, both male and
female population is required at all these levels. Following are the known age
groups in case of the formal education system:
·
35: ECCE programme
·
611: Primary education (Classes I to V)
·
1114: Upper primary education (Classes VI to VIII)
·
614: Elementary education (Classes I to VIII)
·
Single age6: Official entry age for Grade I; and
·
1535: Adult literacy and continuing education programmes.
For example, for ECCE and preprimary programmes, the
corresponding age group is 35 year. For programmes concerning elementary
education, relevant age group is 614 years. For adult literacy and continuing
education programmes, corresponding age groups are 1535 year or 15+
population. But nonformal activities, as mentioned above, do not confine only
to these age groups but vary from provider to provider and programme to
programme. Many of these programmes are being run by the nongovernmental
voluntary agencies also. The NFE programmes within the education sector can be
broadly grouped into the following four categories:
·
Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)
·
Literacy (adult illiterates)
·
OutofSchool children (including EGS) and youth; and
·
Continuing education.
Type of NFE Providers
The pilot studies
further revealed that a vast majority of providers have offered a variety of
NFE programmes which are grouped into the following categories:
·
Government: Central/State
Government/Joint programme of Central and State Government
·
Cooperative: Agency/registered
society where profits are shared by contributing members
·
Industrial/business/service
enterprise
·
Education/training institutes
·
Professional association/trade
unions
·
Religious bodies/missions
(agencies registered by a religious organization like Islamic, Hindu,
Buddhist, Christian, Jewish etc.)
·
Community based organizations (CBO)
·
National branch of International
NGO
·
Local branch of National NGO
·
Local NGO (an NGO with only one
office at the Subnational level)
·
Private bodies/individuals; and
·
International funding and /or
technical assistance agency like, UNESO, UNICEF, UNDP, DFID, USAID, SIDA,
DANIDA, GTZ, World Bank, ADB etc.
NFEMIS & Core Group of NFE Indicators
The pilot studies have
also revealed that little or no information is available on different aspects
of all these NFE programmes. A number of providers offer NFE programmes of
similar nature but they do not share information, which is of common interest.
However, a few NFE providers have some short of regular collection of
information system but the same is not fully utilized in developing similar
NFE programmes in future and also monitoring the existing programmes. Whatever
the information is available on NFE programmes and providers is scattered and
not available at one place. Therefore, there is a need to develop MIS for the
NFE programmes initiatives for which have already been made by the UNESCO,
Paris. Data capture formats have been developed and data collected in the
pilot districts. Computer software is also being developed for this purpose.
To ensure full
utilization of information collected, a set of core group of indicators needs
to be developed so that the NFE providers can use them in knowing different
aspects of programmes that they offer. Raw data collected about the NFE
programmes and providers is of the limited use unless the same is analyzed and
used in planning and monitoring of NFE programmes. The raw data therefore not
only need to be analyzed but refined also so as to convert it into useful
information. This can be done in a variety of ways. Whatever the set of
indicators is developed, it would centered around the providers, type of
programmes, target groups and also the age group of learners.
Who is the Clientele of the Module?
The main user of the present module is the NFE providers
and managers of the NFE programmes at all levels. Efforts have been made to
keep the language and presentation simple and understandable so that the NFE
functionary working at the grassroots level can also understand not only the
meaning of indicators but should also construct indicators for NFE programme
in which he/she is interested and involved.
Objectives of the Module
The following are the main objectives of the present
module on indicators development:

to emphasis the need of developing indicators for the
NFE programmes

to explain meaning of indicators by taking examples in
a simple way

will facilitate users in constructing indicators of
their choice

to suggest a core group of NFE indicators according
to type of providers, age group and nature of NFE programme; and

to present the meaning of an indicator, its
objectives, definitions, limitations, interpretations, information
requirements and source of information.
Before
specific indicators for monitoring NFE programmes are presented, first basic
questions concerning indicator itself is presented.
What
is an Indicator?
To
understand what is indicator? and other questions of similar nature, let us
first define an indicator itself. An indicator is that which points out or
directs attention to something (Oxford Dictionary). According to Jonstone
(1981), an indicator should be something giving a broad indication of the
state of the situation being investigated. Indicator is not an
elementary item of information but it is processed information. Indicators are
often compared to a ‘norm’ or a ‘standard’ (like
pupilinstructor ratio) or to a previous score. Indicators reflect the way in
which an objective can be achieved as well as to what degree approximately the
objective has been achieved at any stage. The following are the main
characteristics of a good indicator:
·
An indicator should provide useful information to the providers
·
Its ability to summarize information without distortions
·
Its precision and comparability
·
Its reliability and frequency of updating
·
It allows to relate it with other indicators for global analysis
·
It measures how far or how close one is from the objectives
·
It helps to identify problematic or unacceptable situation
·
It meets policy concerns; and
·
It helps to compare its value to a reference value, to a
norm/standard or itself, as computed for different periods.
Raw data needs to be changed first in the derived or
indicators form. By using derived data, meaningful conclusions can be drawn
about the NFE programmes under implementation and its providers, clientele for
which a programme is initiated and other aspects of the programme. By using
simple statistical tools such as Averages, Percentage, Rate and
Ratio and Index Numbers, raw data is converted in the indicator form. This
has been explained below by taking examples:
‘Averages’ can be calculated in a variety
of ways. This has been explained below by taking examples. Similar to these
examples, averages can also be worked out in case of NFE programmes.
Example 1: Let us suppose that attendance in case of a NFE Centre for
six days is given as follows:
Day 1 2 3
4 5 6
Attendance 20 22 22 18
21 23
The average attendance is simply work out by adding
number of pupils attended NFE Centre on all these days i.e. 20+22+22+18+21+23
= 126, which is then divided by the number of days for which attendance is
available i.e. 6.
Average Daily Attendance = 126/6 = 21.
This means that on an average 21 learners attended NFE
centers during 6 days for which attendance data is available. While analyzing
average attendance, it may be kept in mind that on few days the number of
learners attended NFE center may be lower or higher than the average i.e. 21.
In the present example, it may be noted that on day 2 and 3, 22 learners
attended while on day 6, 23 learners attended the center. On the other hand,
on day 4, only 18 learners attended the NFE center. Average attendance of 21
is representative in nature and it is the average attendance of all the days
for which attendance data is available.
In view of the nature of the programme, average
attendance can be calculated daily, monthly, quarterly, biannually or yearly.
Let us take another example of calculating average but in in a different way.
Example 2: Age of learners in an NFE center is given along with
number of learners of a particular age:
Age in Years (X) 10
11 12 13 14 15 16 Total
Number of Learners (Y) 4 8
12 50 15 6 5 100
X x Y
40 88 144 650 210 90 80 1302
The task given is to compute the average age of learners
in an NFE center. This can be obtained in the following way: First, number of
learners of an age is multiplied by that age. This is to be repeated for all
the given observations. This has been presented alongwith the data (X x Y).
All these observations are then added, this comes out to be 1,302. This
number is then divided by the total number of learners of all ages i.e. 100.
Thus the average age of learners in an NFE center comes out to be
13003/100 = 13.02;
this
indicates that average age of learners in that NFE center is 13.02 years. As
has been indicated from the given data that a few learners are above and below
the average i.e. 13.02 years. The average age calculated is representative in
nature as it is calculated by using the age data of all the learners.
The
average can also be worked out to know the size of an NFE center. This is
illustrated below:
Example 3: Let us suppose that number of NFE centers distributed
according to size of NFE centers is given as below:
Size of NFE Centre 010
1020 2030 3040 4050 Number
of 20 50
70 60 40
NFE
Centres (X)
Midpoints (Y) 5
15 25 35 45
X x Y 100
750 1750 2100 1800
The task given is to calculate the average size of the
NFE centre. This can be worked out by calculating the midpoints in case of
each size of NFE centre i.e. 010, 1020, 2030 etc. Thus the midpoints
obtained would be 5, 15, 25, 35 and 45. These midpoints are then multiplied
by the corresponding number of NFE centres. Thus total of 20x5, 50x15, 70x25,
60x35 and 40x45 will give 6,500, which is then divided by the total number of
NFE centres i.e. 240. The average size of NFE centre is obtained by dividing
6,500 to 240 i.e. 27.08. Thus, the average size of an NFE centre comes out to
be 27.08. This indicates that on an average there are about 27 learners per
centre. Few NFE centres may have below or above the average number of
learners. This can be calculated for different types of NFE programmes and
also by type of NFE providers.
Based upon the NFE providers and nature of NFE
programmes they offer and the clientele for which a programme is initiated,
the averages presented above can be worked out and analyzed.
‘Rate’ indicates percentage change in the
variables over two different periods of time. It shows the growth or decline
in a variable. Rate is always computed between two given points of time even
though information is available at more than two points of time. Rate can
either be computed on simple or compound basis.
For example, number of NFE programmes offered by a
provider is available for the years, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004. In
order to know the progress made in terms of number of programmes, growth is
calculated. Growth is always calculated between two points of time. Growth is
either in the absolute or percentage form. For example, the number of
programmes offered in 1999 was 208 and that of 2004 is 412. Then, the growth
is simply the difference of programmes offered between 1999 and 2004 i.e. 412
– 208 = 204. It reveals that number of programmes offered by a NFE provider is
increased by 204 programmes between 1999 and 2004. Growth can either be
negative or positive which depends upon the values of the variable at two
points of time. Many a times, growth is also calculated to know the percentage
change occurred between two points of time. This is known as Annual Rate of
Growth. By taking examples, this has been explained below.
Let us suppose that an NFE programme caters the need of
1535 year population. The objective is to know at what rate the population in
that age group (1535 year) has increased, this can be known both in the
absolute and percentage term. Once the rate at which the population at two
previous years is known, the same can also be used in knowing the clientele
population in future. The computation of rate at which clientele population is
increasing and the use of the same in knowing the clientele in future may be
useful for the NFE providers for taking stock of the situation in relation to
the objectives of the NFE programmes and also in initiating similar programme
in future.
For computing the Annual Rate of Growth (Simple), the
following formula can be applied to the information at any two points of time.
(1)
where
r = annual rate of growth
P_{n} = population in the current year
P_{o} = population in the base year
n = number of intermediary years.
Let population of age group 1535 year in a village is
given as 846 in the year 1991 (P_{o}), as against 1,027 in the year
2001 (Pn), then decadal rate of growth would be,
[1027 – 846]
= x 100
[646]
=
21.39 per cent gives the decadal rate of growth which has taken place between
the two given years, 1991 to 2001. The annual rate of growth can be simply
obtained by dividing the decadal rate of growth by ‘n’ (in the present case
‘n’ = 10); thus 2.14 per cent is the annual rate of increase. By assuming
that this rate of growth (r = 2.14 per cent) would continue in future,
population figures can be obtained in any given year. Thus, in this method,
the net increment between two years is obtained by applying ‘r’ to the base
year population, which means the increment remains constant irrespective of
the year, and, hence, considered as a crude method of projection.
A slightly improved method is the compound rate of
growth method, which can be computed with the help of the following
formula.
R = [(P_{n} / P_{o})^{ 1/n} 
1] x 100 (2)
By the formula
P_{n} = P_{o} (1+R/100)^{n}
(3)
population in any requisite year can be projected. The
value of the expression can be obtained with the help of a scientific
calculator by using the function [Yx] or [X^{Y}].
R = [(1027/846) (1/10)  1] x 100
= [(1.2139)0.10  1] x 100
= [1.0196  1] x 100
= 1.96%.
Thus,
during the period 1991 to 2001, population increased at the rate of 1.96 per
cent per annum. This rate can now be applied to know the population figures
in any given year. For example, population in the year 2011 would be,
P_{2011 }= P_{2001} x (1 + R/100)n
= 1027 x (1 + .0196)10
= 1027 x 1.2142
= 1247.
‘Ratio’ shows the relationship between
two variables at any particular period of time. Let us suppose that there are
40,240 illiterates of age group 1535 years and the total population of 1535
years is 56,920. Then, the ratio is calculated as following:
40,240
Ratio
= = 0.7069;
56,920
this shows that the ratio of illiterates to total
population of age group 1535 years population is 0.71. This otherwise means
that for every 100 persons of 1535 year population, there are at least 71
illiterates of that age group. Rates and ratios are interchangeable and
normally expressed as percentages for easy interpretation. On the other hand
percentage is defined as follows:
‘Percentage’ is the mathematical
relationship between two variables multiplied by 100. It is the most commonly
used indicator. In the above example, if the ratio 0.71 is multiplied by 100
would give us 71 per cent. This indicates that 71 per cent of 1535 year
population is illiterate. This otherwise also indicates that only 29 per cent
population of age group 1535 years is literates.
Keeping in view the objectives of an NFE programme,
percentages can be worked out. For example, if the focus of an NFE programme
is on women, then percentage of female illiterates to total illiterates can be
worked out. It would indicate percentage of female illiterates to the total
illiterates. To see whether, the objectives of a NFE programme is being
realized or not, percentage can also be worked out over a period of time. For
example, it will indicate that percentage of female literates to total
literates over time is increased or not. Similarly if calculated for number of
illiterates would indicate increase or decline in female illiterates.
‘Index numbers’ are calculated to review
the progress in relation to a particular point of time. Index numbers are
presented in the percentage form, which compares changes in a variable at a
particular period of time with similar data at some other points of time.
With the help of index number, the growth of a NFE programme can be reviewed.
This is explained below with the help of an example.
Example: An NFE provider is working in the
area of adult literacy programme and has a large number of learning centres.
The total number of centres run by that provider is available for last 5 year
that is presented below:
Year 1999
2000 2001 2002 2003
Number of 254
365 487 500 612
NFE Centres
Index Number 100 143.7
191.7 196.9 240.9
If the
objective is to review the growth of NFE centres, it can be known by using the
index numbers. Index numbers are always calculated in relation to the base
year figure i.e. 254. The number of NFE centres in the subsequent years is
divided by the NFE centres in the base year and then it is multiplied by 100.
In the first year, the index number calculated would always be 100. In
subsequent years, it can be calculated as follows:
Year 2000 = (365/254)*100
= 143.7
Year 2001 = (487/254)*100
= 191.7
Year 2002 = (500/254)*100 =
196.9
Year 2003 = (612/254)*100 =
240.9
This is
interpreted as following. In the first year 1999, the index number calculated
comes out to 100 and in subsequent years, 143.7, 191.7, 196.9 and 240.9. This
means that during 1999 and 2000, the index number has increased from 100 to
143.7 thus meaning an increase in number of NFE centres by 1.43 times.
Similarly, the number of NFE centres in 2001 compared to centres in the base
year 1999, has increased by 1.91 times. In the following years the increase
was 1.97 and 2.41 times compared to NFE centres in the base year 1999. By
following this methodology, index numbers can be computed and used in
analyzing progress made in an NFE centre on its different aspects. For
example, if the objective is to analyze the number of NFE learners of a
particular age group over a period of time, this can be known by computing
index numbers. To know participation of girls in an NFE programme over time
can also be analyzed by using the index numbers. Thus, keeping in view the
requirements and the nature and objectives of an NFE programme, index number
can be used.
Indicators can be developed in a variety of ways. The most common form of
indicators is the representative indicator. It involves selection of a single
variable to reflect some aspect of a non formal education programme. However,
it does not provide any justification for selecting one variable rather than
other. Therefore, choosing one variable to act as an indicator for non formal
education system is an impossible task and the most unsatisfactory one also.
That is why some indicators are disaggregated in nature. Instead of only one
variable to represent a concept, this type of indicator requires definitions
of variables for every element or component of the NFE programme, which is
confusing and difficult to manage. The other variety of indicators is
composite indicator that combines a number of variables. The final composite
indicator is interpreted as average of all variables.
As has
been mentioned, like formal education system, the indicators of NFE can also
be divided into indicators of input, process, output, equity, efficiency and
outcome indicators. However, the classification in case of NFE programmes is
neither clear nor simple. Generally, we view education as a system, which
receives inputs in the form of new entrants, transforms these inputs through
certain internal processes, and finally yields certain outputs in the form of
outcomes i.e. completers/graduates. These indicators are expected to tell
about the performance of NFE programmes at any given time. They can also be
used to monitor the progress of the programme over a period of time and can be
helpful in identifying major strengths and weaknesses in the implementation of
the programme.
Core
Group of Indicators
Based upon the
discussions presented above, a core group of suggestive list of NFE
indicators is presented below. Keeping in
view the nature of NFE programmes, the indicators can be computed according to
NFE providers, target groups, age group and also according to NFE programmes.
Many of these indicators can also be computed separately for male and female
population and also by caste. Keeping in view the level at which an NFE
programme is initiated, the indicators can also be worked out at different
levels, such as, CLC/village, cluster, community, block, district, state and
national levels.
Access

Percentage of (rural) villages served by CLCs

Percentage of tribal villages served by CLCs

Percentage of urban slums served by CLCs

Percentage of households below poverty line

Percentage of out of school children of age group
611/1114/614 years

Percentage of illiterates/semiliterates (1535/15+
years) enrolled in NFE centers to total illiterates (1535/15+ years)
population (by sex and by caste)

Percentage of population participated in the Gram
Sabha to total village population

Percentage of literate population: Adult Literacy
Rate (1535/35+ year)

Percentage of villages having health facility for
all

Percentage of villages having safe drinking water

Percentage of villages having irrigation facility
Input Indicators
12
Percentage of facilitators/educators according to academic
qualifications
13
Percentage of untrained facilitators/educators to total
facilitators/educators
14
Percentage of outside facilitators/educators in NFE centres to total
facilitators/educators
15
Percentage of female facilitators/educators to total
facilitators/educators
16
Facilitators/educators: Learner ratio
Infrastructure Indicators
17
Percentage of CEC’s having pucca (permanent) buildings to total
number of CEC’s having buildings
18
Percentage of CEC’s having own buildings to total number of CEC’s
having buildings
19
Percentage of CEC’s having libraries to total number of CEC’s
Output Indicators
20
Percentage of completers in an NFE programme to total enrolled in an
NFE programme: by male/female/castewise/programmewise/providerwise
21
Percentage of adults of age group 1534/3550/60+ years who completed
the course to total illiterate population enrolled of that age group: by
male/female/provider/programme
22
Percentage learners awarded certificates/diplomas to total number of
learners registered
The indicators definition, limitations, data
requirements, availability of time lag, interpretation in case of each
indicator is present below.
ACCESS INDICATORS
Indicator 1: Percentage of (rural) villages served by CLCs (Continuing Literacy
Centres
Definition
Villages having Continuing Literacy
Centres are divided by total number of villages are multiplied by 100 to obtain
percentage of rural villages served by CLCs.
Unit of Measurement
Percentage of rural villages served
by CLCs.
Data
Requirements
Total
number of rural villages in the sampled area/block/district/state and the number
of those who are having CLC
Typical Availability Time Lag
Will
depend on the frequency of data collected under NFE programme.
Method of
calculation
Number of
villages having CLC in the sampled area/block/district/state is divided by total
number of villages at that level is multiply by 100.
Discussion
The indicator computed will help in
knowing availability of CLCs in villages. If subtracted from 100 will give
percentage of villages not having CLCs. The indicator can be computed at
different levels. It can be used in planning CLCs
Limitations
The information required to compute
indicator may not be available in ready to use form and the computation will
largely depends upon information collected through NFEMIS. The indicator
presents information about the availability of CLC in a village but fails to
present any information about the CLC activities and its learners.
Indicator 2: Percentage of tribal villages served by
CLCs (Continuing Literacy Centres)
Definition
Tribal villages having Continuing
Literacy Centres are divided by total number of tribal villages are multiplied
by 100 to obtain percentage of tribal villages served by CLCs.
Unit of Measurement
Percentage of tribal villages served
by CLCs.
Data
Requirements
Total
number of tribal villages in the sampled area/block/district/state and the
number of those tribal villages where these CLCs are available in that area.
Typical Availability Time Lag
Will
depend on the frequency of data collected under an NFE programme.
Method of Calculation
Tribal
villages having CLCs in the sampled area/block/district/state is divided by
total number of tribal villages which is then multiply by 100.
Discussion
The indicator computed will help in
knowing availability of CLCs in tribal villages. If subtracted from 100 will
give percentage of tribal villages not having CLCs. The indicator can be
computed at different levels. It can be used in planning CLCs in tribal
dominated areas.
Limitations
The information required to compute
indicator may not be available in ready to use form and the computation will
largely depends upon information collected through the NFEMIS. The indicator
presents information about the availability of CLC in a tribal village but fails
to present any information about the CLC activities and its learners.
Indicator 3: Percentage of urban slums served by CLCs
(Continuing Literacy Centres)
Definition
Sums in urban areas having
Continuing Literacy Centres are divided by total number of slums in urban areas
are multiplied by 100 to obtain percentage of tribal villages served by CLCs.
Unit of Measurement
Percentage of slums in urban areas
served by CLCs.
Data
Requirements
The total
number of urban slums having CLCs and the total number of urban slums in the
sampled area/block/district/state etc.
Typical Availability Time Lag
Will
depend on the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.
Method of calculation
Find out
the number of urban slums where CLCs are available in the sampled area
block/district/state and also find out total number of urban slums in the same
area. Divide the number of urban slums having CLCs by the total number of urban
slums in the same area and then multiply by 100.
Discussion
The indicator computed will help in
knowing availability of CLCs in urban slums. If subtracted from 100 will give
percentage of slums not having CLCs. The indicator can be computed at different
levels. It can be used in planning CLCs in tribal dominated areas.
Limitations
The information required to compute
indicator may not be available in ready to use form and the computation will
largely depends upon information collected through the NFEMIS. The indicator
presents information about the availability of CLC in urban slums but fails to
present any information about the CLC activities and its learners.
Indicator 4: Percentage
of households below the poverty line
Definition
Number of
households below poverty line in an area is divided by the total number of
households in the same area is multiplied by 100 to obtain percentage of
households below the poverty line. The poverty line is decided on the basis of
some criterion, which is approved by the Government on the basis of certain
norms. Those households which fall below this criterion are treated as below
the poverty line.
Unit of Measurement
Percentage of households below the
poverty line.
Data
Requirements
Total
number of households below poverty line in an area and total number of
households in the village/sampled area/block/district/state etc.
Typical Availability Time Lag
Household
surveys are expensive and timeconsuming therefore these are conducted
sparingly.
Method of calculation
Number of
households below poverty line in an area is divided by the total number of
households in the same area is multiplied by 100.
Discussion
The indicator computed will help in
knowing economic condition of households in relation to total number of
households. If subtracted from 100 will give percentage of households above the
poverty line. Keeping in view the requirements, the indicator can be computed at
different levels. It can be used in planning for employment and income
generation related programmes.
Limitations
The information required to compute
indicator is not available in ready to use form and the computation largely
depends upon information collected through the NFEMIS. It is difficult to
obtain correct information from the households about their earning. Correct use
of definition of poverty line is also challenging one. Investigators collecting
information may not be familiar with the definition of poverty line. The
information, even if available from the Government sources may not be available
at regular intervals.
Indicator 5: Percentage of out of school children of age
group 611/1114/614 years
Definition
Percentage of children
of a specific age group not currently enrolled including the drop out and never
enrolled children to total population of that age group.
Unit of
Measurement
Percentage of outofschool children
to total population of that age group.
Data
Requirements
Total number of out of school children in the agegroup
611/1114/614 and total child population of that age group
611/1114/614/614. This is required at different levels.
Discussion
The
information on outofschool children is perhaps the most crucial information
that is required for developing educational plans at different levels. But the
same from the regular sources is not readily available. Household surveys
conducted in the recent past can also be explored for this purpose. If analyzed
separately for boys and girls will help in initiating programmes for
outofschool children.
This
indicator is very important for the educational planners. If the data on out of
school is available village and other levels, then the same can be used in
formulating plans both under formal and nonformal education sectors. The
indicator also reflects on the efforts that are being made towards achieving
goal of universal elementary education.
Typical Availability Time Lag
There is
no regular source of information on out of school children. It is being
collected through the household surveys frequency of which vary from state to
state.
Method of Calculation
Number of
out of school children in an age group is divided by total number of children of
that age group is then multiplied by 100.
Limitations
Information
on out of school is available on only from the Census sources once in ten year.
Even Census estimates are not available immediately. Sample surveys conducted
by the National Sample Survey Organization do not disseminate information at
micro levels. Thus obtaining reliable information will be challenging one.
Indicator 6: Percentage of population participated in Gram Sabha to total
village population
Definition
Percentage of village population participated in Gram Sabha to the total
population of that village. Every village has a Gram Sabha (village level
elected body). Some of the villagers participate in the activities of the Gram
Sabha while others do not participate. The indicator can be calculated
separately for male and female population.
Unit
of Measurement:
Percentage form.
Data
Requirements
Number of
persons in a village participates in Gram Sabha activities and total population
of that village.
Typical Availability Time Lag
The
indicator is required at the village level and is generally available from the
Gram Sabha registers.
Method of Calculation
The
number of Gram Sabha members in a village participate in Gram Sabha
activities is divided by the total members of the Gram Sabha is then
multiply by 100.
Discussion
This
indicator is very important for lower level functionaries like school teachers,
CLC workers to elicit help from the villagers. If larger number of persons
takes part in the activities of the Gram Sabha, educational problems of the
village can be easily discussed and strategies formed. The participants can
look after the welfare of CLCs and schools not only in physical and financial
terms but also in bringing and retaining children in schools or in nonformal
CLCs. Most of the campaigns fail because villagers do not participate in
Gram Sabhas. This indicator can be calculated separately for male and female
population.
Limitations
A few
villages do not maintain Gram Sabha registers. Mere participation in
Gram Sabha may not ensure solution of local problems.
Indicator 7: Percentage of illiterates/semiliterates (1535/15+ years) enrolled
in NFE centers to total illiterates (1535/15+ years) population (by sex and by
caste)
Definition
The
number of illiterate/semiliterate population (1535/15+ years) enrolled in NFE
centers when expressed as a percentage to total population in that agegroup
(1535/15+ years) gives this indicator. The indicator can be calculated
separately for male and female population and also by caste. Keeping in view the
objectives of a NFE programme and clientele to which cater, the indicator can be
calculated either for 1535 or 15+ population and also at different levels, such
as, CLC/village, cluster, block, district, state or national level.
Unit
of Measurement
Percentage form.
Data
Requirements
Number
illiterates/semi literates in the age groups of 1535 and 15+ population.
Typical Availability Time Lag
Depends
on the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.
Method
of Calculation
Number of
illiterate/semiliterate persons(1535/15+ years) enrolled in NFE centres in the
sampled area/block/district /state is divided by the total number of illiterate
population (1535/15+years) in the same area is multiplied by 100.
Discussion
It helps
NFE providers/administrators to plan for more adult literacy centres for these
age groups where ever necessary. The indicator gives an idea about the
percentage of illiterates/semiliterate persons (1535/15+years) enrolled in NFE
centers. If subtracted from 100, it gives percentage of such persons yet to be
covered under such NFE programmes.
Limitations
Latest
information may not be available. Largely, it depends on frequency of data
collection under an NFE programme.
Indicator 8: Adult Literacy
Rate: 1535 and 15+ Population
Definition
A
literate is a person who can both read and write with understanding a simple
statement of daily life. The term literacy also embraces numeracy and the
ability to make simple arithmetic calculations.
The
literate population (in 15+ years/1535 years) is expressed as a percentage to
total population in the respective agegroup. Literacy represents a potential
for the individual’s further intellectual growth and enhanced contribution to
socioeconomic and cultural development of society. The indicator can be
calculated at different levels and also according to NFE providers and type of
an NFE programme.
Unit
of Measurement
In
percentage form.
Data
Requirements
Number of
literates of age group 1535 and 15+ years and total population of that age
group at different levels.
Typical Availability Time Lag
The data
is available only through decennial Census operations.
Method
of Calculation
Number of
adult illiterates of an agegroup in the sampled area/block/district/state is
divided by the total population of that agegroup in the same area is multiplied
by 100.
Discussion
The
indicator gives an idea about the literacy status of population in a
block/district/state. The indicator helps the NFE providers in taking
corrective measures to improve the literacy status of population either through
the formal or nonformal education programmes. If calculated for different
geographical areas may help in comparing the educational backwardness (in terms
of literacy) of an area compared to other areas and also in finding out the
reasons of low literacy.
Limitations
The data
is collected once in 10 year through the decennial censuses. For intervening
years, data on literacy is not available and hence, it computation largely
depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.
Indicator 9: Percentage of
villages having health facility for all
Definition
The
number of villages having health facilities is expressed as percentage of total
villages. The indicator throws light on the availability of health facilities
in the villages.
Unit
of Measurement
In
percentage form.
Data
Requirements
Number of
villages having health facilities and also the total number of villages.
Typical Availability Time Lag
Largely
depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.
Method
of Calculation
The
number of villages having health facilities in the sampled
area/block/district/state are divided by the total number of villages in the
same area is multiplied by 100.
Discussion
This
indicator reflects on social service programmes run by Government for the
welfare of its people. It is assumed that with better health facilities, the
health of the people will also be better and the nation will progress.
Limitations
Indicator is not readily available.
Computation largely depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE
programme. It fails to present any idea about type of health facilities
available and also its utilization.
Indicator 10: Percentage of
villages having safe drinking water
Definition
Percentage of villages in the sampled area/block/district/state having safe
drinking water expressed as percentage to total number of villages in the same
area.
Unit
of Measurement
In
percentage form.
Data
Requirements
Number of
village having safe drinking water facility and also total number of villages.
Typical Availability Time Lag
Depends
on the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme. May also be
available from village registers.
Method
of Calculation
Number
villages in the sampled area/block/district /state having safe drinking water is
divided by the total number of villages in the same area is multiplied by 100.
Discussion
The
indicator presents information about one of the important aspects of social
services. Safe drinking water has direct bearing on health of the people. If
water is not safe to drink, waterborne diseases are certain to surface. The
indicator can be computed at different levels and can be used to compare
availability of safe drinking water facility.
Limitations
Largely,
the computation of indicator will depends on the data collection under an NFE
programme. However, it fails to provide any information about source of drinking
water and also whether the same is equally accessible to the entire population
in an area.
Indicator 11: Percentage of villages having
irrigation facility
Definition
Villages
in the sampled area/block/district/state having irrigation facilities are
expressed as percentage to the total number of villages in the same area.
Irrigation facilities are very essential for the development of agriculture
sector. If irrigation facilitates are not available, agriculture sector can’t
prosper. This is a very important input in the primary sector of the economy.
If the primary sector of the economy is not developed, other sectors of the
economy are also not expected to grow.
Unit
of Measurement
Percentage form.
Data
Requirements
Number of
villages having irrigation facility in an area and also total number of villages
in that area.
Typical Availability Time Lag
Depends
on the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.
Method
of Calculation
Number of
villages having irrigation facilities in the sampled area/block/district/state
is divided by the total number villages in the same area is multiplied by 100.
Discussion
Agriculture is the primary sector of the economy. For the development of the
primary sector, irrigation facilities are very important to ensure that this
sector of economy grows significantly. If the primary sector does not grow, the
overall economy will also not able to grow. Therefore, irrigation facilities
are very important for the growth of the economy. This indicator will give
areawise comparative position of growth and also of the irrigation facilities.
Limitations
The
information may be available in ready use form at the village level but the same
may not be available at one place. The computation of indicator largely depends
upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.
INPUT
INDICATORS
Indicator 12: Percentage of facilitators/educators according to academic
qualifications: [(a) Below Matriculation; (b) Matriculates; (c) Hr. Secondary;
(d) Graduate & Above] to the total facilitators/educators
Definition
Percentage of facilitators
according to academic qualifications (below matriculation, matriculates, higher
secondary and graduate & above) to the total number of facilitators in the
sampled area/block/district/state.
Unit
of Measurement
Percentage of facilitators distributed (according to academic qualifications) to
the total number of facilitators.
Data
Requirements
Total
number of facilitators according to their academic qualifications in the sampled
area/block/district/state and total number of facilitators in the same area.
Typical Availability Time Lag
It will
depend on the collection of data under an NFE programme. For the formal
education system, the same is collected once in an academic year.
Method
of Calculation
Number of
facilitators (according to qualifications) in the sampled
area/block/district/state is divided by the total number of facilitators in the
sampled area/block/district/state is multiplied by 100. The indicator can also
be computed separately by type of NFE programme and providers.
Discussion
The indicator is qualitative in
nature. It is general belief that if the academic qualifications of teachers are
higher, the quality of education they impart would also be better. It can be
compared between one sampled area to the other; one block to the other and one
district or state to the other district or state. The indicator should also be
computed sexwise and also NFE programme and providerwise.
Limitations
The
availability of basic data required to compute the indicator is generally
collected once in an academic year but the same is not readily available.
However, the NFE providers may be collected information periodically frequency
of which vary from provider to provider and programme to programme.
Indicator 13:
Percentage of trained facilitators/educators to total facilitators/ educators
Definition
Number of
trained facilitators/educators expressed as percentage to the total number of
facilitators/educators in the sampled area/block/district/state. If subtracted
from 100 will present percentage of untrained facilitators/educators.
Unit
of Measurement
Percentage of trained facilitators/educators.
Data
Requirements
Number of
facilitators/educators acquired training and total number of
facilitators/educators in the sampled area/block/district/state.
Typical Availability Time Lag
Depends
upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme. In case of formal
education system, the information is being collected annually.
Method
of Calculation
Number of
facilitators having acquired training is divided by the total number of
facilitators/educators in the sampled area/block/district/state is multiplied by
100.
Discussion
The
indicator is termed as qualitative indicator in nature as it reflects upon the
type of learning taking place in an NFE centre. The indicator should be
calculated separately in case of male and female teachers and at different
levels and also by type of NFE programme and type of NFE provider.
Limitations
Computation of indicator largely depends upon the basic data which may not be
available on regular basis according to NFE programme and providers. Higher is
the percentage of trained teachers itself doesn’t guarantee quality learning in
NFE centres.
Indicator 14:
Percentage of outside facilitators/educators in NFE centers to total
facilitators/educators
Definition
Outside
facilitators/educators are expressed as percentage to total
facilitators/educators in the sampled area/block/district/state. If computed by
NFE programmes will present percentage of local facilitators/educators as well
as those who are not staying in the village where the NFE centre is located.
Unit
of Measurement
Percentage of outside facilitators/educators to total facilitators/educators.
Data
Requirements
Number of
total facilitators/educators and number those who reside outside the village
where the NFE centre is located.
Typical Availability Time lag
Will
depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.
Method
of Calculation
Number of
facilitators/instructors who reside outside the village where the CLC is located
is divided by the total number of facilitators/educators in the same area is
then multiplied by 100.
Discussion
The main
purpose of this indicator is to know the percentage of outside facilitators or
local facilitators/educators. This otherwise also throw light on the percentage
of facilitators/educators who come from outside the CLC area. It is general
belief that if the facilitator/educator is not local, he/she may not devote full
time to NFE centre as such facilitators take time to reach NFE centre. That is
why many of the NFE providers prefer to hire a local person than the outsiders.
Limitations
The basic
data needed to compute indicator may not be available. Getting updated
information will be challenging one.
Indicator 15: Percentage of female
facilitators/educators to total facilitators/educators
Definition
Number of
female facilitators/educators expressed as percentage to total number of
facilitators/educators in the sampled area/block/district/state. Women are the
main vulnerable unit in our society. Therefore, if the number of female
facilitators/educators is more, they can draw on the larger number of
illiterate/uneducated persons of the society to the learning centres.
Unit
of Measurement
Percentage of female facilitators to total facilitators/educators.
Data
Requirements
Number of
female instructors/educators and total number of instructors/educators. This is
required according to the type of NFE programme and providers and may also
require at different levels.
Typical Availability Time Lag
Will
depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.
Method
of Calculation
The
number of female facilitators/educators in the sampled area/block/district/state
is divided by the total number of facilitators/educators in the same area is
multiplied by 100. This may need to compute separately by NFE programmes and
type of providers.
Discussion
Females
are the most vulnerable group in our society. If we have some females as
facilitators/educators, they can influence women groups and illiterate women to
join the nonformal learning centers. This will help a great deal in the
spread of literacy and education through the nonformal means.
Limitations
The basic
data needed to compute indicator may not be available. Getting updated
information will be challenging one. However, the same is available in ready to
use form in case of formal education system.
Indicator 16: Facilitators/Educators: Learner’s Ratio
Definition
Average
number of learners per facilitator/educator in an NFE centre/programme. The
indicator is equivalent to pupil teacher ratio of the formal education system.
This indicator is used to measure the level of human resources input, in terms
of the number of facilitators/instructors in relation to the learner’s
population in an NFE centre/programme.
Unit
of Measurement
Ratio.
Data
Requirements
Number of
learners and facilitators/instructors in an NFE centre is required by type of
NFE programmes and providers and also at different levels.
Typical Availability Time Lag
Largely
depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.
Method
of Calculation
Total
number of learners in an NFE programme in the sampled area/block/district/state
is divided by the total number of facilitators in the same area to obtain the
ratio. This may need to compute by type of NFE programme and providers and also
at various levels.
Discussion
Most of
the alternative modes of education also have a norm of the learners per
facilitator/instructor. The ratio can be used in optimally utilizing resources
in general and facilitators/instructors in general in an NFE programme.
Limitations
Obtaining
updated information on this indicator will be challenging one. Largely, it
depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.
Indicator 17: Percentage of CEC’s having own buildings
to total number of CEC’s having buildings
Definition
Percentage of CEC’s having buildings in relation to total number of CEC’s.
Building is essential for smooth transaction of curriculum which is true for
both the formal and nonformal education systems.
Unit
of Measurement
Percentage.
Data
Requirements
Total
number of CEC’s in sampled area/block/district/state and number of CEC’s having
buildings in the same area. This is also required according to type of NFE
programme and providers.
Typical Availability Time Lag
Largely
it depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.
Method
of Calculation
Number of
CEC’s having buildings in the sampled area/block/district /state is divided by
the total number of CEC’s in that area is multiplied by 100.
Discussion
The
indicator gives information about percentage of the CEC’s having buildings. This
can also be used to know percentage of CEC’s that have no buildings. Such type
of CEC’s may have temporary shelters or functioning in rented buildings. If the
CEC is functioning in a rented building, it has little scope of remodeling that
suits to its requirements.
Limitations
Information on CEC’s and whether it having building or not is generally not
available. Its collection depends upon the frequency of data collection under an
NFE programme that varies from a programme to programme. Just having
building need not guarantee itself that necessary infrastructure that requires
for smooth transaction is required in the CEC. The indicator also fails to
provide any information about use of building and also the type of building the
CEC is having.
Indicator 18: Percentage of CEC’s having pucca
(permanent) buildings to total number of CEC’s having buildings
Definition
Percentage of CEC’s having pucca (permanent) buildings in relation to
total number of CEC’s having buildings. Building is essential for smooth
transaction of curriculum which is true for both the formal and nonformal
education systems.
Unit
of Measurement
Percentage.
Data
Requirements
Total
number of CEC’s having buildings in sampled area/block/district/state and total
number of CEC’s having pucca (permanent) buildings in the same area. This
is also required according to type of NFE programme and providers.
Typical Availability Time Lag
Largely
it depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.
Method
of Calculation
Number of
CEC’s having pucca (permanent) buildings in the sampled
area/block/district /state is divided by the total number of CEC’s with
buildings in that area is multiplied by 100.
Discussion
Most of
the CEC’s have provision of libraries with reading room facility but it is not
essential that all the CEC’s have buildings and that too pucca (permanent)
buildings. It is essential that the CEC has a pucca (permanent) building
for the safe custody of materials (like books, furniture, teaching aids and
equipment). In the absence of pucca building, it is not possible to
provide safe custody of all such materials. Even the learning classes can’t be
held in an open space in rainy reason if the CEC building is not permanent in
nature.
Limitations
Information on CEC’s and whether it having building or not is generally not
available. Its collection depends upon the frequency of data collection under an
NFE programme that varies from a programme to programme. Just having
building need not guarantee itself that necessary infrastructure that requires
for smooth transaction is required in the CEC. The indicator also fails to
provide any information about use of CEC building.
Indicator 19: Percentage of CEC’s having libraries to total number of CEC’s
Definition
Library provides an important input
in the nonformal education programmes. Through this indicator, percentage of
CEC’s having libraries are known. A CEC with a good library and reading room
facility becomes a good place for gathering and learning from each other. In
such a place an opportunity is also provided to learn from the experiences of
others. People learn a lot from each other and utilize their free time in
constructive activities.
Unit
of Measurement
Percentage of CEC’s having libraries.
Data
Requirements
Number of
CEC’s having libraries in sampled area/block/district/state and total number of
CEC’s in the same area. This is also required according to type of NFE programme
and providers.
Typical Availability Time Lag
Largely
it depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.
Method
of Calculation
Number of
CEC’s having libraries in the sampled area/block/district /state is divided by
the total number of CEC’s in that area is multiplied by 100.
Discussion
Library
is an important aspect of CEC around which its activities should center around.
It provides a place for the villagers (younger & older) to come and take
advantage of reading room during their leisure time. Library is treated as the
focal point in a village where people read papers, discuss politics & learn from
each other. They also provide neoliterates and learners in post literacy
centres an opportunity to access books and other reading material of their
choice.
Limitations
Information on CEC’s and whether it having library or not is generally not
available. Its collection depends upon the frequency of data collection under an
NFE programme that varies from a programme to programme. Just having
library need not guarantee itself that it has necessary infrastructure. The
indicator also fails to provide any information about use of CEC library and
type of material it has.
OUTPUT INDICATORS
Indicator 20: Percentage of completers in an
NFE programme to total enrolled in that programme
Definition
A few NFE
programmes are result oriented. Like formal education system, learners in NFE
programmes are often expected to complete a level. The indicator may not be
applicable to all the NFE programmes. Therefore, the indicator should be
computed only in case of NFE programmes that expect learners to complete a
particular level.
Percentage of completers in an NFE programme is expressed as a percentage of the
total learners in that programme. The indicator if computed
by
male/female/castewise/programmewise/providerwise will be of more use.
Unit
of Measurement
Percentage of completers.
Data
Requirements
Number of
completers and total enrolment (learners) in an NFE programme. In view of the
objectives of NFE programmes, the information will also be required by type of
NFE programme and providers and also at different levels.
Typical Availability Time Lag
Largely
it depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.
Method
of Calculation
Number of
learners those who have completed a NFE programme is divided by the total
learners in the same NFE programme is multiplied by 100. The indicator can also
be constructed centrewise and NFE programme and providerwise.
Discussion
Learners
those who join NFE programmes either complete the programme or do not complete
it. Those who complete it are termed as completers of that programme.
Completion is either decided on the basis of learner’s attendance or by holding
a test at the end of the programme. After completion of a programme, the
recipients/learners are expected to utilize the knowledge acquired in his/her
daily life. The indicator, if computed by sex, cast¸ programme and provider
will throw light on effectiveness of an NFE programme and provider.
Limitations
The
indicator may not be applicable to all the NFE programmes. Getting information
on number of completers will be challenging one. The indicator takes note of
only completers and is silent about the quality of outcomes and use of knowledge
gained in day to day life.
Indicator 21: Percentage of adults of agegroup
1534/3560/60+year who completed the course to total illiterate population of
that age group
Definition
The
illiterates of different age groups (1534/3560/60+year) who completed NFE
course is expressed as percentage of the total illiterate population in that
agegroup. The indicator, if computed by sex and programme will be more useful
in knowing the literacy status of population in different age groups. The
indicator also gives idea about how many illiterate persons are yet to be made
literate.
Unit
of Measurement
Percentage of adult illiterate persons completed NFE course.
Data
Requirements
Number of
illiterates of different age groups completed NFE programme and total number of
illiterates of the same age group enrolled. Keeping in view the objectives of
the programme, the same may be required sex, programme and providerwise.
Typical Availability Time Lag
Largely
it depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.
Method
of Calculation
Number of
adults of an agegroup in the sampled area//block/district/state who completed
NFE course is divided by the total illiterate population of that agegroup is
divided by 100.
Discussion
Learners
those who join NFE programmes either complete the programme or do not complete
it. Those who complete it are termed as completers of that programme. After
completion of a course, the learners are expected to utilize the knowledge
acquired in his/her daily life. The indicator, if computed by sex, cast¸
programme and provider will throw more light on effectiveness of an NFE
programme and provider.
Limitations
The
indicator may not be applicable to all the NFE programmes. Getting information
on number of completers will be challenging one. The indicator takes note of
only completers and is silent about the quality of outcomes and use of knowledge
gained in day to day life.
Indicator 22: Percentage of learners awarded
certificate/diploma to total number of learners registered
Definition
In some
courses, certificate/diplomas are awarded to the completers either on the basis
of attendance or on the basis of a test conducted at the end of the programme.
In such cases, number of learners who get certificates/diplomas in a course are
expressed as a percentage to the total learners registered. But in some courses
it is also possible that no certificate/diploma is awarded. Instead, only
attendance chit is issued. Such cases are not considered in this indicator.
Unit
of Measurement
Percentage of learners awarded certificate/diploma.
Data
Requirements
Number of
learners awarded certificate/diploma in an NFE programme and total number of
learners registered in that NFE programme.
Typical Availability Time Lag
Largely
it depends upon the frequency of data collection under an NFE programme.
Method
of Calculation
Number of
learners who are awarded certificates/diplomas in the sampled
area/block/district/state is divided by the total number of learners who were
registered for that course in the same area is divided by 100.
Discussion
A few NFE
programmes/providers/agencies award certificates/diplomas on the basis of either
attendance or test conducted at the end of the course. On the other hand, there
are some courses where no certificate/diploma is awarded to the learners. The
indicator gives an idea about the percentage of learners awarded
certificate/diploma which is equivalent to some grade of the formal education
system. If some sort of interlinkages between the nonformal education and
formal education is established, it will go a long way in improving the quality
of the NFE programmes.
Limitations
Computation of indicator depends on the availability of data under an NFE
programme.
